Sunday, March 27, 2011

Cullavagga - Eighth Khandhaka: Chapter 1

1. Now at that time the Blessed One was staying at Sâvatthi, in Anâtha Pindika's
Now at that time incoming Bhikkhus entered the Ârâma with their sandals on 1, or
with sunshades held up over them 2, or with their heads muffled up 3, or with
their upper robe carried in a bundle on their heads 4; and they washed their
feet in the drinking-water; and they did not salute resident Bhikkhus senior to
them, nor ask them where they (the incomers) should sleep.
And a certain incoming Bhikkhu undid the bolt 5 of an unoccupied room (Vihâra),
and opened the door 6, and so entered by force; and a snake fell
p. 273
on to his back from the lintel above 1, and he was terrified, and made an outcry
The Bhikkhus, running up, asked him why he did so. He told them that matter.
Then those Bhikkhus who were moderate in their desires were vexed and indignant,
and murmured, saying, 'How can incoming Bhikkhus enter the Ârâma . . . .? (&c.,
as before, down to) . . . . where they should sleep 3.'
They told the matter to the Blessed One (&c., as usual, I, 1, 2, 3, down to) he
addressed the Bhikkhus, and said, 'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule
of conduct for incoming Bhikkhus, according to which they ought to behave.
2. 'An incoming Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, when he knows he is about to enter an
Ârâma, ought to take off his sandals, turn them upside down 4, beat them (to get
the dust) off, take them (up again) in his
p. 274
hand, put down his sunshade, uncover his head, arrange his upper robe on his
back 1, and then carefully and slowly enter the Ârâma.
'When he enters the Ârâma he ought to notice where the resident Bhikkhus are
gone to; and whithersoever they are gone--whether to the service hall, or to the
portico (mandapa), or to the foot of a tree--thither he ought to go, and laying
his bowl on one side, and his robe on one side, he ought to take a suitable
seat, and sit down.
'He ought to ask as to the drinking-water, and the water for washing 2, which is
appropriated to the one use, and which to the other. If he has need of
drinking-water, he ought to fetch it and drink. If he has need of water for
washing, he ought to fetch it, and wash his feet. In washing his feet he ought
to pour the water over them with one hand, and wash them with the other; he
ought not to pour the water over them and wash them with one and the same hand.
'He ought to ask for the cloths with which sandals are cleaned, and clean his
sandals. In cleaning his sandals he ought first to wipe them with a dry cloth,
and afterwards with a wet cloth: and then he ought to wash the cloths, and lay
them on one side 3.
p. 275
'If the resident Bhikkhu be senior, he ought to be saluted; if junior, he ought
to be made to salute (the incomer). The incomer ought to ask as to the
lodging-place, which has fallen (to his lot) 1, and whether it is occupied or
unoccupied. He ought to ask as to lawful and unlawful resorts 2, and as to what
families have been officially declared to be in want 3.
4'He ought to ask as to the retiring-places, (where they are), and as to the
drinking-water, and as to the water for washing, and as to the staves for
walking with, and as to the place for the conferences of the Samgha, (and as to)
the time at which he ought to enter (it) and at which he ought to leave it.
3. 'If the Vihâra be unoccupied, he ought to knock at the door, then to wait a
minute, then to undo the bolt, and open the door, and then, still standing
outside, to look within.
'If that Vihâra is covered with dust 5, or the beds or chairs are piled one upon
another, and the bedding put in a heap on the top of them 6,--then if
p. 276
he can do so he ought to clean up the Vihâra. 1 And when cleaning the Vihâra, he
ought to take the floor matting out and put it down on one side, and the
supports of the bedsteads 2, and the bolsters 3 and pillows, and the mat which
is used as a seat. Putting the bedsteads and chairs down on to the ground, and
carefully avoiding scratching (the floor with them) or knocking them up against
(the door-posts), he ought to take them outside the door, and put them down on
one side. The spittoon and the board to lean up against 4 ought to be taken out,
and put down on one side 5.
'If the Vihâra is covered with cobwebs, they should first be removed with a
cloth 6. The casements should be dusted, especially in the corners and joints.
'If the wall which had been plastered and red-washed, or the floor which had
been laid (with earth) and black-washed 7, has become dirty in the corners 8,
they should be wiped down with a
p. 277
duster 1 that has been first wetted and wrung out. If the floor has not been so
prepared, it should be sprinkled over with water and swept 2, lest the Vihâra
should be spoilt 3 by dust. The sweepings should be gathered together, and cast
p. 278
4. 'The floor coverings 1 should be dried in the sun, cleaned, beaten to get the
dust out, taken back, and spread out again in the place to which they belonged
2. The supports of the bed should be dried in the sun, dusted, taken back, and
put in the place to which they belonged. The bed (mañka) and the chairs (pîtha)
should be aired in the sun, cleaned, beaten to get the dust out, turned upside
down, taken back, carefully avoiding scratching them against the floor, or
knocking them up against the door-posts, and then put in the place to which they
belonged 3. The bolsters and pillows, and the
p. 279
mats used as seats, should be aired in the sun, cleaned; beaten to get the dust
out, taken back, and put in the place to which they belonged. The spittoon, and
the board for leaning up against, should be put in the sun, dusted, taken back,
and put in the place to which they belonged.
15. '(Then the incoming Bhikkhu) should put away his bowl and his robe. In
putting away his bowl, he should hold it in one hand while he feels under the
bed or the chair with the other, and then put it away; and he should not put it
on a part of the floor which has been left bare. In putting away his robe, he
should hold it in one hand while he feels along the bamboo or the rope used for
hanging robes on with the other; and then hang it up with the border turned away
from him, and the fold turned towards him.
2 'If the winds, bearing dust with them 3, blow from the East, West, North, or
South, the window spaces 4 on the side in question should be closed up (with
shutters or lattices). If it is cold weather, the lattices should be opened by
day, and closed by
p. 280
night: if it is hot weather, they should be closed by day, and opened by night.
1'If the cell, or the store-room, or the refectory, or the room where the fire
is kept, or the privy, is covered with dust, it should be swept out. If there is
no drinking-water, or water for washing, they should be provided. If there is no
water in the rinsing-pot 2, water should be poured into it.
'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct for incoming Bhikkhus, according to
which they ought to behave.'

272:1 That this was a sign of disrespect is clear from Mahâvagga V. 12, and the
61st and 62nd Sekhiyas.
272:2 See our discussion of the sunshade question in the note on Kullavagga V,
23, 2.
272:3 Ogunthitâ. See the 23rd and the 67th Sekhiyas.
272:4 Sîse katvâ. Compare VIII, 6, 3.
272:5 Ghatikâ. This word is discussed at Kullavagga V, 14, 3.
272:6 Such an act has been already guarded against by the rule laid down at the
end of Kullavagga V, 9. 5, where the same expression is made use of.
273:1 Upari-pitthito. On pittha (which we should possibly read here), as the
lintel of a door, see our note above at Kullavagga V, 14, 3. It recurs
immediately below, VIII, I, 3.
273:2 Vissaram akâsi. As Childers, sub voce, expresses doubt as to the meaning
of this word, it may be well to note that this phrase occurs above, Kullavagga
V, 10, 2 and VI, 3, 4, and also in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya LX, and
always in the sense here given. The meaning of the allied idiom, vissaro me
bhavissati, might be just doubtful as used in a peculiar connection at
Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga, Pârâgika I, 1, and Samghâdisesa III, 3, were it not clear
from ibid., Pâkittiya LXXXVI, that it means simply 'there will be an outcry
against me.'
273:3 The form of this speech bears very clear testimony to the artificial way
in which these introductory stories are put together, for the speech does not
arise out of the story. Similar instances are not infrequent. See VIII, 5, I.
273:4 Nîkam katvâ. So also at VIII, 6, 2. The word is used below and at
Mahâvagga I, 25, II and 15 of a bedstead and chair, and below, VIII, 4, 4, of a
bowl when it is being washed.
274:1 See the note below on VIII, 8, 2.
274:2 On these expressions, compare the note above on Kullavagga IV, 4, 4 (at
the end), and Kullavagga VIII, 2, 5 = Mahâvagga I, 25, 19.
274:3 These cloths (kolakam) are not specially permitted anywhere in the
Khandhakas, as cloths for wiping the face and feet are in Mahâvagga VIII, 18,
and Kullavagga VI, 19, respectively. The word is used for 'duster' below, VIII,
2, 3, and for 'tinder' at Milinda Pañha, p. 53.
275:1 See the rules as to the division of lodging-places according to the number
of applicants at Kullavagga VI, 21, 2, and especially VI, II, 3.
275:2 Gokaro agokaro. There were some places or families to which the Bhikkhus
of a particular residence were not allowed to resort for alms. See the rule as
to 'turning down the bowl' with respect to a person at Kullavagga V, 20.
275:3 Sekha-sammatâni kulâni. See the note on the 3rd Pâtidesaniya.
275:4 All the following expressions have occurred together at Kullavagga IV, 4,
4, where an example is given of the course of proceeding here laid down. And
they are repeated below, VIII, 2, 2.
275:5 Uklâpo. Compare Kullavagga VI, 3, 9, and below, § 5.
275:6 This was the way in which a Bhikkhu, on going away from it p. 276 was to
leave his Vihâra. See below, VIII, 3, 2, and on the details of the terms used,
see our note below on VIII, 1, 4.
276:1 The rest of this section is repeated in full below, VIII, 7, 2.
276:2 Patipâdakâ. Doubtless the same as forms part of the âhakka-mañka mentioned
in the 18th Pâkittiya and above, VI, 2, 5.
276:3 Bhisi. See the note on Mahâvagga VIII, 13.
276:4 Apassena-phalakam. See the note on Kullavagga VI, 20, 2.
276:5 All the expressions in this sentence and the next are the same as those
used in a similar connection at Mahâvagga I, 25, 15.
276:6 Ullokâ. See the note at Kullavagga VI, 2, 7, according to which our
rendering at Mahâvagga I, 25, 15 should be corrected.
276:7 On this mode of preparing walls and floors, see the notes above on
Kullavagga VI, 20.
276:8 Kannakitâ. See our note above on Kullavagga V, II, 3. p. 277 The
translation of our present passage at Mahâvagga I, 25, 15, must be corrected
277:1 Kolaka. See the note on this word in last section.
277:2 Sammaggati is to sweep (not to scrub), as is apparent from Mahâvagga VI,
34, I.
277:3 Ûhaññi. So also at Mahâvagga I, 25, 15. At Mahâvagga I, 49, 4, we should
have rendered 'defiled their beds' instead of 'threw their bedding about,'
correcting uhananti of the text there into ûhadanti. Ûhan (originally 'to throw
up,' 'raise,' &c.) seems, like samûhan, to have acquired the meaning of to
destroy, injure, spoil. From this meaning of spoiling, ûhan evidently came to be
used for, or confounded in the MS. with, ûhad, 'to defile (with excrement).' So
the phrase 'ûhananti pi ummihanti pi' (at Mahâvagga I, 49, 4) exactly
corresponds in meaning to 'omuttenti pi ûhadayanti pi' in Dhammapada, p. 283.
There are other passages showing the same confusion. (1) The gerund, ûhakka,
which occurs in Gâtaka II, p. 71 ('idâni kho (ahan) tam ûhakka'), is explained
by the commentator to mean 'vakkan te sîse katva.' (2) ûhanti, in Gâtaka II, p.
73 ('aggihuttañ ka ûhanti, tena bhinnâ kamandalûti'), must mean the same and be
= ûhadeti. For the monkey here referred to is said to have been guilty of the
following dirty trick:--'kundikâ bhindati, aggisâlâya vakkam karoti.' (3)
mutteti ohaneti at Kariyâ Pitaka II, 5, 4, represents ukkâra-pasâvam katvâ at
Gâtaka II, 385. In the first of these passages uhakka may well be a copyist's
blunder, arising from the similarity of the words, for uhagga. Dr. Morris, to
whom we owe the comparison of these passages and the suggested emendation of
Mahâvagga I, 49, 4, is rather of opinion that the words were confounded by the
writers. For it is not an uncommon thing to find two words, not very remote in
form or meaning, confounded together. It is well known that the English word
livelihood properly and originally meant 'liveliness,' and has only afterwards
replaced the earlier livelode, to which the sense of livelihood properly
belongs. And something of this kind p. 278 must have occurred, he thinks„in Pâli
in the use of ûhan for it had. The past participle ûhata occurs at Kullavagga
VIII, 10, 3.
278:1 Bhummattharanam; usually, no doubt, matting of various kinds, but
occasionally also skins or rugs of the kinds specially allowed by VI, 14, 2.
278:2 Yathâbhâgam. The use of this word here constitutes the only variation
between our passage and that in the Mahâvagga I, 25 = below, VIII, 7, 2, where
it is replaced by yathâtthâne or yathâpaññattam.
278:3 This passage throws a welcome light on the meaning of mañka and pîtha: for
as they were to be beaten to get the dust out, it is clear that they were
upholstered. The mañka, or bed, must have been a wooden framework, stuffed
(probably with cotton), covered at the top with cotton cloth, and made
underneath and at the sides of wood. It had no legs fixed to it, but was
supported on movable tressels--the patipâdakâ. When using it, the sleeper
covered it with a mat, or a cotton sheet, and had over him a coverlet of some
kind; and these articles, which he would also use if he slept on the ground,
constituted, together with the bolster and pillows, the senâsanam or
bedding,--that is, in the more special and limited use of that term (as, for
instance, above, § 3, and perhaps below, 7, 1). In its larger sense the same
word is used, putting the part for the whole, for the whole sleeping apparatus,
and is nearly equivalent to seyyâyo (so, for instance, in VI, 11 and 12, and
below, VIII, 2, I; 6, 2 and perhaps VIII, 7, 1; whereas the latter term is used
in the same connection at VI, 6, p. 279 and VI, II, 3). Sayana, in VI, 8, is a
generic term including bed, couch, sofa, and divan, but probably with special
reference to these three latter things used in the day-time.
279:1 The following paragraph occurs, word for word, at Mahâvagga I, 25, II, and
below, VIII, 7, 2.
279:2 The following paragraph is the same as Mahâvagga I, 25,18.
279:3 Saragâ vâtâ. These are the well-known hot winds (like the sand-bearing
simoom that blows from North Africa over Italy), against which modern residents
endeavour to protect themselves by the use of 'tats.'
279:4 There were, of course, no windows in our modern sense, but only spaces
left in the wall to admit light and air, and covered by lattices of three kinds
allowed by VI, 2, 2.
280:1 The following paragraph is the same as Mahâvagga I, 25, 19, and part of it
is repeated below, VIII, 10, 3.
280:2 Âkamana-kumbhi. This formed part of the sanitary apparatus for use in the
privy. See above, Mahâvagga V, 8, 3, and below, Cullavagga VIII, 9 and 10.


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