Sunday, March 27, 2011

Cullavagga - Eighth Khandhaka: Chapter 4

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus did not give thanks in the place where a meal
was served. People murmured, etc.; the Bhikkhus heard, etc.; the Blessed One on
that occasion, etc. 1 said to the Bhikkhus:
'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the giving of thanks.'
Then the Bhikkhus thought, 'By whom should the thanks be given?'
They told this matter to the Blessed One.
'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the elder Bhikkhu (present) to give thanks in the place
where a meal is served.'
Now at that time (the turn to provide) the Samgha with a meal had fallen to a
certain company 2; and the venerable Sâriputta was the senior (Bhikkhu in that)
Samgha. The Bhikkhus, thinking, 'The Blessed One has permitted the senior
Bhikkhu to return thanks in the place where a meal is served,' went away,
leaving the venerable Sâriputta alone. And the venerable Sâriputta gave thanks
to those people, and then came away alone.
The Blessed One saw the venerable Sâriputta coming from the distance; and on
seeing him, he said to him: 'Did the meal, then, Sâriputta, pass off well 3?'
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'The meal, Lord, passed off well. But the Bhikkhus went away and left me alone.'
Then the Blessed One, in that connection, having delivered a religious
discourse, said to them:
'I allow, O Bhikkhus, four or five of the Bhikkhus, who are senior or next to
the seniors, to wait.'
Now at that time a certain elder waited in the dining hall, though he wanted to
retire, and through holding himself back, he fainted and fell.
They told this matter to the Blessed One.
'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, if necessity should arise, to leave the hall after
informing the Bhikkhu sitting immediately next 1 (to the one who wants to go).'
2. Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus went to the place where a meal was
to be served with their under-garments or their robes improperly put on, and not
decently attired; and turning aside 2, they pushed on in front of the senior
Bhikkhus; and they encroached on (the space intended for) the senior Bhikkhus 3
when taking their seats, and they compelled the junior Bhikkhus to give up their
seats to them; and spreading out their upper robes
p. 286
[paragraph continues] (as mats) 1 they took their seats in the space between the
houses 2.
The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c. . . . told the Blessed One, &c. . . . he
said to the Bhikkhus:
'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of conduct for the Bhikkhus at a
meal, which they are to observe thereat.
33. 'When time has been called in the Ârâma, a Bhikkhu should put on his
waistcloth so as to cover himself all round from above the navel to below the
knees, tie his belt round his waist, fold 4 his upper robes and put them on,
fasten the block on 5, wash (his hands), take his alms-bowl, and then slowly and
carefully proceed to the village. He is not to turn aside (from the direct
route) and push on in front of senior Bhikkhus 6. He is to go amidst the houses
properly clad, with (his limbs) under control, with downcast eye, with (his
robes) not tucked up, not laughing, or speaking loudly, not swaying his body or
his arms or his head about, not with his arms akimbo, or his robe pulled over
his head, and without walking on his heels. And he is co take his
p. 287
seat amidst the houses properly clad (&c., all as before, down to) not with his
arms akimbo, or his robes pulled over his head, and without lolling, and without
encroaching on (the space intended for) the senior Bhikkhus, or ejecting the
junior Bhikkhus from the seats, or spreading his upper robe out (as a mat).
4. 'When the water is being given out (before the meal), he is to hold his bowl
with both hands, receive the water (in it), lower the bowl carefully down to the
ground so as to avoid scratching the floor, and then wash it. If there be (a
person there) whose duty it is to take away the water (which has been so used),
(the Bhikkhu) should lower (his bowl on to the ground) and pour the water into
the waste tub 1 without splashing the person in question, nor the Bhikkhus near,
nor (his own) robes. If there be no such person, he should lower his bowl on to
the earth and pour the water away, without splashing the Bhikkhus near or (his
own) robes.
'When the boiled rice is being given out, he should hold his bowl with both
hands, and receive the rice in it. Room should be left for the curry. If there
is ghee, or oil, or delicacies 2, the senior Bhikkhu should say: "Get an equal
quantity for all." The alms (given) are to be accepted with mind alert, paying
attention to the bowl, with equal curry, and equally heaped up 3. And the senior
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[paragraph continues] Bhikkhu is not to begin to eat until the boiled rice has
been served out to all.
15. 'The alms given are to be eaten with mind alert, paying attention to the
bowl, with equal curry, and equally heaped up; without pressing down from the
top; without covering up the curry or the condiment with the rice, desiring to
make it nicer; and without asking for either rice or curry for the Bhikkhu's own
particular use, unless he be sick. Others' bowls are not to be looked at with
envious thoughts. The food is not to be rolled up (by the fingers) into balls
that are too large, but into round mouthfuls. The door of the mouth is not to be
opened till the ball is brought close to it. When eating, the whole hand is not
to be put into the mouth. He is not to talk with his mouth full, nor to toss the
food into his mouth as he eats, nor to nibble at the balls of food, nor to stuff
his cheeks out as he eats, nor to shake (particles of food off) his hands, nor
to scatter lumps of rice about, nor to put out his tongue, nor to smack his
lips, nor to make a hissing sound as he eats, nor to lick his fingers, or his
bowl, or his lips. And the jar containing drinking-water is not to be taken hold
of with hands soiled with food.
6. 'The senior Bhikkhu is not to accept water (to rinse out his bowl with) until
all Bhikkhus have finished eating. When water is being given out (after the meal
. . . . &c., as in the first paragraph of § 4, down to the end). The water that
has been used for washing the bowl is not to be thrown with the rinsings in it
into the inner court 2.
p. 289
'In returning, the junior Bhikkhus are to go back first, and the senior Bhikkhus
after them. Each Bhikkhu is to pass amidst the houses properly clad . . . .
(&c., as above, § 3, down to) without walking on his heels.
'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct that I establish for Bhikkhus at a
meal, which they are to observe thereat.'
Here ends the First Portion for Recitation.

284:1 For the passages here implied, see I, 1, 2, 3.
284:2 Aññatarassa pûgassa. This sentence has already occurred at V, 5, 2.
284:3 On this use of iddho, compare ovâdo iddho in the Bhikkhunî-vibhaṅga,
Pâkittiya LVI.
285:1 Anantarikam bhikkhum. See the note on this phrase at VI, 10, 1.
Ânantarikam in the text (with long â) is a misprint.
285:2 Vokkamma, which is not, as Childers supposes, equal to okkamma with
euphonic v, but to vyavakramya or vyutkramya.
285:3 Anupakhagga: which is here used, not in the sense it has at IV, 14, 1, but
in the sense in which it is used in the 16th and 43rd Pâkittiyas, in both which
passages it is explained by the Old Commentary by anupavisitvâ. This clause and
the next occur also at Mahâvagga I, 25, 13.
286:1 Samghâtim ottharitvâ. This use of the Samghâti is referred to at Gâtaka I,
212, and above, I, 13, 2.
286:2 Antaraghare. See Sekhiyas 3-26, repeated in the next section. It is
perhaps doubtful whether this word may not mean here. (as in Sekhiya 27--below,
§ 6) the inner courtyard of a house which is surrounded by buildings; but we
follow the interpretation we have adopted, loc. cit.
286:3 The following section repeats the Sekhiyas, Nos. 3-26, where see further
notes. Much of it recurs below in VIII, 5, 2.
286:4 Sagunam katvâ. Compare Mahâvagga I, 25, 9.
286:5 Ganthikam. See the note on V, 29, 3. It was to prevent the robe being
blown up by the wind. The word occurs again in VIII, 5, 2.
286:6 The following sentence is repeated, word for word, below, § 6.
287:1 Patiggahe. See the note on V, 10, 3. Avakkâra-pâtî, at Mahâvagga IV, 1, 2
= Kullavagga VIII, 5, 3, seems to have very nearly the same meaning. The whole
of this paragraph is repeated below, § 6.
287:2 Uttaribhaṅgam. See the note on VI, 4, I.
287:3 On the expressions in this sentence, compare the notes on Sekhiyas 27-32.
288:1 This paragraph repeats Sekhiyas 31-55, where see our notes.
288:2 This is the 57th Sekhiya.


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