Showing posts with label patthana. Show all posts
Showing posts with label patthana. Show all posts

Tuesday, June 28, 2011

Abhidhamma Pitaka - Patthana

Patthana Pali, the seventh and last book of the Abhidhamma, is called the Maha Pakarana, the ‘Great Book’ announcing the supreme position it occupies and the height of excellence it has reached in its investigations into the ultimate nature of all the dhammas in the Universe.

The Dhammasangani gives an enumeration of these dhammas classifying them under the Tika and Duka groups. Vibhanga analyses them to show what dhammas are contained in the major categories of khandhas, ayatanas, dhatus etc. Dhatukatha studies the relationship of dhammas listed in the Matika with each component of these major categories of khandhas, ayatanas and dhatus. Yamaka resolves ambiguity in the internal and external relationship of each dhamma. Patthana forming the last book of the Abhidhamma brings together all such relationship in a co-ordinated form to show that the dhammas do not exist as isolated entities but they constitute a well ordered system in which the smallest unit conditions the rest of it and is also being conditioned in return. The arrangement of the system is so very intricate, complex, highly thorough and complete that it earns for this treatise the reputation of being deep, profound and unfathomable.

The Buddha's teaching on the conditions for the phenomena of our life has been laid down in the last of the seven books of the Abhidhamma, the "Patthana", or "Causal Conditions and Relations". The Buddha, during the night of his enlightenment, penetrated all the different conditions for the phenomena, and he contemplated the "Dependant Origination" (Paticca Samuppada), the conditions for being in the cycle of birth and death, and the way leading to the elimination of these causes. It is said that the Buddha, during the fourth week after his enlightenment, sat in the "Jewel House", in the north west direction, and contemplated the Abhidhamma. The Abhidhamma was laid down later on in seven books. We read:

... And while he contemplated the contents of the "Dhammasangani" (the first book) , his body did not emit rays; and similarly with the contemplation of the next five books. But when, coming to the "Great Book" (the seventh book) , he began to contemplate the twenty-four universal causal relations of condition, of presentation, and so on, his omniscience certainly found its opportunity therein. For as the great fish "Timirati-pingala" (a giant fish) finds room only in the great ocean, so his omniscience truly finds room only in the Great Book. Rays of six colours- indigo, golden, red, white, tawny, and dazzling- emitted from the Teacher's body, as he was contemplating the subtle and abstruse Dhamma by his omniscience which had found such opportunity....

The teaching of the conditional relations is deep and it is not easy to understand the "Patthana", but we could at least begin to study different conditions and verify them in daily life. Before we knew the Buddha's teachings, we used to think of cause and effect in a speculative way. We may have reflected on the origin of life, on the origin of the world, we may have thought about causes and effects with regard to the events of life, but we did not penetrate the real conditions for the phenomena of life. The Buddha taught the way to develop understanding of what is true in the absolute or ultimate sense. We cannot understand the "Patthana" if we do not know the difference between what is real in conventional sense and what is real in the ultimate sense. Body and mind are real in conventional sense, they are not real in the ultimate sense. What we call body and mind are temporary combinations of different realities which arise because of conditioning factors and then fall away immediately.

They are succeeded by new realities which fall away again, and thus the flux of life goes on. Body, mind, person or being do not exist in the ultimate sense. Mental phenomena, nama, and physical phenomena, rupa, which constitute what we call a "person" are real in the ultimate sense, but they are merely passing phenomena. Ultimate truth is not abstract. Ultimate realities, in Pali: paramattha dhammas, have each their own characteristic which cannot be changed. We may change the name, but the characteristic remains the same. Seeing is an ultimate reality, it experiences visible object which appears through the eyes; it is real for everyone, it has its own unalterable characteristic. Anger has its own characteristic, it is real for everyone, no matter how we name it. Ultimate realities can be directly experienced when they appear through eyes, ears, nose, tongue, bodysense or mind. They arise because of their appropriate conditions.

Friday, May 27, 2011

Abhidhammattha Sangaha - The Law of Causal Relations

Abhidhammattha Sangaha ( A Manual of Abhidhamma )

Translated by Narada Maha Thera
Published By the Buddhist Missionary Society

§3.(1) Hetupaccayo, (2) arammanapaccayo, (3)adhipati-
paccayo, (4) anantarapaccayo, (5)samanantarapaccayo,
(6)sahajatapaccayo, (7)annamannapaccayo, (8) nissaya-
paccayo, (9) upanissayapaccayo, (10) purejatapaccayo,
(11)pacchajatapaccayo, (12) asevanapaccayo, (13)kamma-
paccayo, (14)vipakapaccayo, (15) aharapaccayo, (16)in-
driyapaccayo, (17) jhanapaccayo, (18) maggapaccayo,
(19)sampayuttapaccayo, (20) vippayuttapaccayo, (21)atthi-
paccayo, (22) natthipaccayo, (23) vigatapaccayo, (24)avigata-
paccayo’ti ayam’ettha patthananayo.
i.Chadha namantu namassa pancadha
Ekadha puna rupassa rupam namassa c’ekadha,
ii.Pannattinamarupani namassa duvidha dvayam
Dvayassa navadha c’ati chabbidha paccaya
A.Anantaraniruddha cittacetasika dhamma paccup-
pannanam citta cetasikanam anantara samanantaranatthi-
vigatavasena; purimani javanani pacchimanam javananam

asevanavasena; sahajata cittacetasika dhamma annamannam
sampayuttavasena’ti chadha namam namassa paccayo hoti.
B.Hetujhanaïgamaggaïgani sahajatanam namaru-
panam hetadivasena; sahajata cetana sahajatanam nama-
rupanam; nanakkhanika cetana kammabhinibbattanam
namarupanam kammavasena; vipakakkhandha annaman-
nam saha jatanam rupanam vipakavasen’ati ca pancadha
namam namarupanam paccayo hoti.
C.Pacchajata cittacetasika dhamma purejatassa
imassa kayassa pacchajatavasen’ati ekadha va namam
rupassa paccayo hoti.
D.Chavatthuni pavattiyam sattannam vinnanadha-
tunam; pancalambanani ca pancavinnanavithiya pureja-
tavasen’ati ekadha va rupam namassa paccayo hoti.
E.ârammanavasena upanissyavasena’ti ca duvidha
pannattinamarupani namass’ eva paccaya honti.
Tattha rupadivasena chabbidham hoti arammanam.
Upanissayo pana tividho hoti—arammanupanissayo,
anantarupanissayo, pakatupanissayo c’ati. Tatth’a-
lambanam’ eva garukatam arammanupanissayo. Anantara-
niruddha cittacetasika dhamma anantarupanissayo. Raga-
dayo pana dhamma saddhadayo ca sukham dukkham
puggalo bhojanam utu senasanan ca yatharaham
ajjhattam ca bahiddha ca kusaladidhammanam kammam
vipakanti ca bahudha hoti pakatupanissayo.

F.Adhipati, sahajata, annamanna, nissaya, ahara,
indriya, vippayutta, atthi, avigatavasena’ti yatharaham
navadha namarupani namarupanam paccaya bhavanti.
Tattha garukatam’alambanam alambanadhipativa-
sena namanam sahajadhipati catubbidho’pi sahajatavasena
sahajatanam namarupananti ca duvidho hoti adhipatipa-
Cittacetasika dhamma annamannam sahajatarupanan
ca, mahabhuta annamannam upadarupanan ca,
patisandhikkhane vatthuvipaka annamannanti ca tividho
hoti sahajatapaccayo.
Cittacetasika dhamma annamannam, mahabhuta
annamannam patisandhikkhane vatthuvipaka annam-
annanti ca tividho hoti annamannapaccayo.
Cittacetasika dhamma annamannam sahajatarupanan
ca mahabhuta annamannam upadarupanan ca, chavatthuni
sattannam vinnanadhatunanti ca tividho hoti nissaya-
Kabaëikaro aharo imassa kayassa, arupino ahara
sahajatanam namarupanan’ti ca duvidho hoti aharapaccayo.
Pancappasada pancannam vinnananam, rupajivitin-
driyam upadinnarupanam, arupino indriya sahajatanam
namarupananti ca tividho hoti indriyapaccayo.
Okkantikkhane vatthuvipakanam, cittacetasika dham-
ma sahajatarupanam sahajatavasena, pacchajata cittace-
tasika dhamma purejatassa imassa kayassa pacchajatava-
sena, cha vatthuni pavattiyam sattannam vinnanadha-
tunam purejatavasena’ti ca tividho hoti vippayuttapaccayo.

Sahajatam purejatam pacchajatam ca sabbatha
Kabaëikaro aharo rupajivitamiccayanti.
Pancavidho hoti atthipaccayo avigatapaccayo.
ârammanupanissayakamma atthipaccayesu ca sabbe’pi
paccaya samodhanam gacchanti.
Sahajatarupanti pan’ettha sabbattha’pi pavatte
cittasamutthananam patisandhiyam katattarupanan ca
vasena duvidho hoti veditabbam.
Iti tekalika dhamma kalamutta ca sambhava
Ajjhattan ca bahiddha ca saïkhatasaïkhata tatha
Pannattinamarupanam vasena tividha thita
Paccaya nama patthane catuvisati sabbatha’ti.
§3.The Law of Causal Relations
The following are the causal relations:—
1. Root (18) . .. .. .. condition
2. Object (19). .. .. .. "
3. Predominance (20). .. .. .. "
4. Contiguity (21). .. .. .. "
5. Immediacy (21). .. .. .. "
6. Co-nascence (22). .. .. .. "
7. Mutuality (or Reciprocity) (23) . .. "
8. Dependence (24). .. .. .. "
9. Powerful Dependence (or Sufficing) (24) "

10. Pre-nascence (or Antecedence) (25). condition
11. Post-nascence (or Post Occurrence) (26) "
12. Repetition (or Habitual Recurrence) (27) "
13. Kamma (28). .. .. .. "
14. Effect (29). .. .. .. "
15. Nutriment (30). .. .. .. "
16. Control (31). .. .. .. "
17. Jhana (32). .. .. .. "
18. Path (33). .. .. .. "
19. Association (34). .. .. .. "
20. Dissociation (35). .. .. .. "
21. Presence (36). .. .. .. "
22. Absence (37). .. .. .. "
23. Separation (38). .. .. .. "
24. Non-separation (38). .. .. .. "
Herein this is the law of causal relations.
Section 2
The Law of Causal Relations
In six ways mind is related to mind. In five ways mind is
related to mind and matter. Again mind is related in one
way to matter, and matter in one way to mind. In two ways
concepts, mind and matter are related to mind. In nine
ways are the two-mind and matter-related to mind and
matter. Thus the relations are sixfold.

Relations of Mind and Matter
A.In six ways mind is related to mind:—
Consciousness and mental states that immediately
cease, relate themselves to present consciousness and
mental states by way of contiguity, immediacy, absence, and
Preceding Javanas are related to the subsequent
Javanas by way of repetition (or habitual recurrence).
Coexisting consciousness and mental states are
related to one another by way of association.
B.In five ways mind is related to mind and matter:—
Root, Jhana and Path factors are related to coexisting
mind and matter by way of root etc.
Coexisting volition is related to coexisting mind and
matter and asynchronous volition to mind and matter born
of kamma by way of kamma.
The (mental) aggregates of effect are related to one
another and coexistent matter by way of effect.
C.Only in one way is mind related to matter:—
Subsequent consciousness and mental states are
related to this preceding (material) body by way of post-
D.Only in one way is matter related to mind:—
The six bases during life are related to the seven ele-

ments of cognition, and the five objects to the five pro-
cesses of sense-cognition by way of antecedence.
E.In two ways are concepts, mind and matter related to
mind—namely, by way of object and powerful dependence.
Therein object is sixfold as form etc. But powerful
dependence is threefold—namely, powerful dependence as
object, powerful dependence as contiguity, and powerful
dependence as intrinsic nature.
Of them the object itself when it becomes prominent
serves as a powerful dependence. Consciousness and mental
states that immediately cease act as the powerful depend-
ence of proximity. The powerful dependence of intrinsic
nature is of several kinds:—states of lust etc. states of con-
fidence etc., pleasure, pain, individual, food, season, lodg-
ing—conditions, internal and external, as the case may be,
are related to moral states etc. Kamma, too, is similarly
related to its effects.
F.Mind and matter are related to mind and matter in
nine ways according to circumstances—namely, by way of
predominance, co-nascence, reciprocity, dependence, nutri-
ment, control, dissociation, presence, and non-separation.
Therein relation of predominance is twofold:—
i.The object to which weight is attached is re-
lated to states of mind by way of objective predominance.
ii.The fourfold coexisting predominance is related
to coexisting mind and matter by way of co-nascence.
The relation of co-nascence is threefold:—conscious-

ness and mental states are related to one another and to
the coexisting material states; the four Great Essentials,
mutually to the derived material qualities; bases and the
resultant consciousness, at the moment of rebirth, to one
The relation of reciprocity is threefold:—conscious-
ness and mental states are related to one another; the four
Great Essentials, to one another; bases and the resultant
consciousness at the moment of rebirth, to one another.
The relation of dependence is threefold:—conscious-
ness and mental states are related to one another and
coexisting matter; the four chief elements, to one another
and derived material qualities; and six bases, to the seven
cognitive elements.
The relation of nutriment is twofold:—edible food is
related to this body; and immaterial nutriment, to the
coexisting mind and matter.
The relation of control is threefold:—the five sensi-
tive organs are related to the five kinds of cognition; the
controlling power of material vitality, to the material qual-
ities that have been grasped at; the immaterial controlling
factors, to the coexistent mind and matter.
The law of dissociation is threefold:—at the moment
of conception the basis of mind is related to the effects (of
kamma), and consciousness and mental states, to coexist-
ent mind and matter by way of coexistence;, the subsequent
consciousness and mental states, to this antecedent body
by way of post-occurrence; the six bases, in the course of

life, to the seven cognitive elements by way of antecedence.
The five kinds of relations—coexistence, antecedence,
post-occurrence, edible food, and material life—are, in every
way, the relation of presence and that of non-separation.
All relations are included in the relations of object,
powerful dependence, Kamma and presence.
Herein coexisting material qualities should be under-
stood as twofold:—throughout the course of life they
should be understood as those born of mind, and at rebirth
as those born of kamma.
Thus the relative conditions pertaining to the three periods
of time and timeless, internal and external, conditioned
and non-conditioned, are threefold by way of concept,
mind and matter.
In all the relations in Patthana are twenty-four.
Section 3
18.Hetu-paccaya—Here paccaya presents some diffi-
culty. It is defined as that by means of which an effect
comes to be. In other words it is the cause. Further-
more, it is explained as a ‘serviceable or supportive
factor’ (upakarako dhammo). Hetu is defined as ‘that
by which an effect is established.’ It is used in the sense
of ‘root’ (mulatthena). Like the roots of a tree are hetu;

like water and manure that aid its growth are paccaya.
In the Abhidhamma these two cognate terms are used
in two different senses. In the Suttas, however, they
are invariably employed as synoymous terms, without
any distinction, as, for example, ko hetu, ko paccayo—
what is the reason? what is the cause?
In the Patthana 24 such paccayas are enumerat-
ed, and hetu is one of them. Hetupaccaya is ex-
plained as ‘hetu itself is a paccaya’ or ‘as hetu it be-
comes a paccaya.’ It is interpreted as a supportive or
serviceable factor in the sense of root (mulattthena
upakarako dhammo). The causal relation by way of
‘root’ may be suggested as the closest rendering. (See
Compendium, p. 279; Journal of the Pali Text Society,
1915–1916, pp. 29–53.
‘Roots’ are purely mental. They are the six moral
and immoral roots. See Chapter 1.
19.ârammana—or âlambana—The former is derived
from a +
√ ram, to delight in; the latter from a +
√ lamb, to hang upon. Things on which the sub-
ject delights in or hangs upon are ‘objects’. There are
six classes of objects. A form, for instance, acts as a
causal relation to visual-consciousness by way of an
‘object’. It should be stated that there is nothing mun-
dane or supramundane that does not become an
object for mind.
20.Adhipati—Lit., mastery or lordship over one’s own.

One of the four dominant factors—-namely, wish,
thought, effort and reasoning—may, at one time,
causally relate itself to coexistent mental states and
material phenomena by way of predominance.
“Whenever such phenomena as consciousness
and mental states arise by giving predominance to
one of these four factors, then this phenomenon is to
the other phenomenon a condition by way of pre-
dominance.” (Patthana).
21.Anantara and Samanantara—In meaning there is
no difference between the two terms. They differ
only in etymology. According to Buddhist philosophy
one thought-moment perishes immediately giving
birth to another. The succeeding thought-moment
inherits all the potentialities of its immediate prede-
cessor. The perishing preceding states causally relate
themselves to immediately following states by way of
contiguity and immediacy.
22. Sahajata—The causal relation by way of co-nascence,
as, for instance, the four mental aggregates, the differ-
ent mental states that simultaneously arise in a partic-
ular type of consciousness, the four Great Essentials
that arise together, the appearance of the three ‘dec-
ads’ at the moment of conception, etc. In the Paticca-
samuppada it may be mentioned that both contact
and feeling which appear as causes and effect are co-

A mental state may be co-nascent with a mental
state, a mental with a physical, a physical with a
physical, and a physical with a mental.
23.Annamanna—Just as the legs of a tripod are recipro-
cally helpful, even so mental or physical state or
states may be causally related by way of reciprocity
(or mutuality). Causal relations of co-nascence and
reciprocity should be differentiated. They are not
identical. For instance, mind-born material phenom-
ena are not reciprocally related to the coexisting
mind, nor are the material derivatives to the coexist-
ing Great Essentials. As a rule, mind and matter are
reciprocally related.
24.Nissaya and Upanissaya—derived from upa + ni +
√ si, to lie. Upa is an intensive prefix. As trees
depend on the ground for their support, and as pic-
tures depend on a canvas on which they are painted,
so is the causal relation of dependence. Upanissaya is
defined as a stronger species of Nissaya. It is com-
pared to the rains on which depend the growth of
trees. S. Z. Aung renders upasnissaya by ‘sufficing
condition’. For instance, one of the five heinous
crimes such as matricide, parricide and so on will
serve as an upanissaya to effect a birth in a woeful
state. Good environments, early education, etc. will
serve as a causal relation by way of ‘dependence’
(nissaya) for the acquisition of health, wealth and

knowledge in later life. Just as good actions become
upanissaya for future good deeds, even so they may
become upanissaya for evil too as, for instance, spir-
itual pride. See Ledi Sayadaw’s learned article on this
subject in P. T. S. Journal, 1916, pp. 49–53.
25.Purejata—lit., born before or that which pre-exists.
The six physical bases and six sensual objects are
regarded as pre-existent. The pre-existent things are
regarded as causal relations only when they continue
to exist in the present and not by mere antecedence.
Priority is not a good rendering.
26.Pacehajata—Of the 89 types of consciousness,
85types, excluding the four Arupa resultants, and
the 52 mental states are causally related to the ante-
cedent physical body by way of post-occurrence.
27.âsevana—Repeated practice, as a rule, leads to pro-
ficiency. This applies to both good and evil things. By
repetition one acquires a certain amount of skill in
any particular thing. âsevana denotes this repeated
practice. In javana process the second thought-
moment is causally related to the first, the third to
the second, the fourth to the third, by way of recur-
rence. This is the reason why the fourth javana
thought-moment is considered very powerful.
28.Kamma means the volition that plays the most
important part in moral and immoral thoughts,

words, and deeds. This volition, technically known as
Kamma, is causally related to the Kamma-born mate-
rial phenomena etc. As a seed to a tree so is Kamma
causally related to its inevitable results.
29.Vipaka—Like a cool breeze that pacifies a person
seated under the cool shade of a tree, even so mental
states of resultant types of consciousness are causally
related to coexistent mental states and material phe-
nomena by way of ‘effect’ due to their effortless
peaceful nature.
30.âhara—Just as material food sustains the physical
body, even so mental foods sustain mental states.
Edible food is causally related to the body by way of
nutriment or food; so are mental contacts or impres-
sions (phassa) to feelings, volitions or moral
andimmoral actions (manosancetana) to rebirth-
consciousness (patisandhi vinnana), and rebirth-
consciousness (vinnana) to mind and matter.
31.Indriya—The controlling factors enumerated in
chapter VII become causally related to the coexistent
mental states and material phenomena because they
exercise control in their respective spheres. For
instance, confidence controls its co-adjuncts in reli-
gious convictions; psychic and physical life, in vivify-
ing mind and matter; mindfulness, in contemplative
exercise; feelings, in grief and happiness, etc.

32.Jhana—The seven jhana factors of (1) initial applica-
tion, (2), sustained application, (3) rapture, (4) happi-
ness, (5) equanimity, (6) displeasure and (7) one-
pointedness are causally related to one another and
other concomitants by way of close perception and con-
templation. For instance, the initial application (vitakka)
is causally related to its concomitants in directing them
towards the desired object. See Chapter 1.
1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in two classes of conscious-
ness rooted in attachment; 1, 2, 6, 7, in hateful con-
sciousness; 1, 2, 5, 7, in deluded consciousness.
33.Magga—means a way or road. One way leads to woe-
ful states; the other, to states of bliss. The vehicles
that convey travellers to the former are the evil ‘Path-
Constituents’ of wrong views, wrong application,
wrong effort, and wrong one-pointedness. The vehicles
that ply on the latter way are right understanding,
right aspirations, right speech, right action, right live-
lihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right one-
pointedness. These path factors are causally related
to both mind and body, leading downwards in the
case of bad ones, and leading away from existence
(niyyana) in the case of good ones.
34.Sampayutta—Though possessing distinct character-
istics from an ultimate standpoint yet, as certain men-
tal states arise together, perish together, have one
identical object and one identical base, they are caus-

ally related to one another by way of ‘association’.
35.Vippayutta is the opposite of the foregoing. Sweet
and bitter tastes may be helpful to each other in
being dissimilar. For instance, mind that depends on
the heart-basis is causally related to it by way of dis-
sociation because both mind and heart-basis are not
mutually bound as water on a lotus leaf.
36.Atthi is the causal relation of states that exist in the
present to similar states like the causal relation of
coexistence. The visibility of objects, for instance, is
due to the presence of light.
37.Natthi—As with the disappearance of light, darkness
spreads, so with the disappearance of the predeces-
sor, the successor appears. Such is the causal relation
by way of absence. For instance, the visual conscious-
ness (dassana) is causally related to the immediately
following receiving consciousness (sampaticchana)
by way of absence.
38.Vigata and Avigata are similar to Natthi and Atthi