Showing posts with label Abhidhammattha Sangaha. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Abhidhammattha Sangaha. Show all posts

Friday, May 27, 2011

Abhidhammattha Sangaha - Attainments & Aspiration

Abhidhammattha Sangaha ( A Manual of Abhidhamma )

Translated by Narada Maha Thera
Published By the Buddhist Missionary Society

§9.Phalasamapattivithiyam pan’ettha sabbesam pi ya-
thasakaphalavasena sadharana’va. Nirodhasamapattisama-
pajjanam pana anagaminan c’eva arahattanan ca labbhati.
Tattha yathakkamam pathamajjhanadimahaggatasamapa-
ttim samapajjitva vutthaya tattha gate sankharadhamme
tattha tatth’ eva vipassanto yava akincannayatanam gantva
tato param adhittheyyadikam pubbakiccam katva n’eva
sanna n’asannayatanam samapajjati. Tassa dvinnam
appanajavananam parato vocchijjati cittasantati. Tato
nirodhasamapanno hoti.
Vutthanakale pana anagamino anagamiphalacittam

arahato arahattaphalacittam ekavaram pavattiva bhavan-
gapato hoti. Tato param paccavekkhanananam pavattati.
Ayam’ ettha samapattibhedo.
Nitthito ca vipassanakammatthananayo.
Bhavetabbam pan’icc’evam bhavanadvayam’ uttamam
Patipattirasassadam patthayantena sasane.
Iti Abhidhammattha Sangahe Kammatthanasangaha-
Vibhago nama navamo paricchedo.
♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦
Nambavhayena panidhaya paranukampam
Yam patthitam pakaranam parinitthitantam.
2.Punnena tena vipulena tumulasomam
Mannantu punnavibhavodayamangalaya.
Iti Anuruddhacariyena racitam Abhidhammattha-
sangaham nama pakaranam nitthitam.

§9.Herein ‘the Attainment to Fruition’ is common to all
in accordance with their respective fruits.
But ‘The Attainment to Cessation’ (57) is possible
only to Never-Returners and Arahants.
In this case, one attains successively to the great
ecstasies like the first jhana etc., and emerging therefrom
contemplates on the conditioned things in each of those
jhanas. Thus he proceeds up to ‘the State of Nothingness’.
Then, having attended to the preliminary duties such as
resolving etc., he attains to the ‘State of Neither-Perception
nor Non-Perception’. Now after two ecstatic javana
thought-moments his stream of consciousness is sus-
pended. Thereafter he attains to (Supreme) ‘Cessation’.
At the time of rising, if to a Never-Returner, an
Anagami Fruit consciousness, or to an Arahant, an Arahant
Fruit consciousness, occurs only for a single moment and
then lapses into Bhavanga. This is followed by the know-
ledge of reflection.
Herein this is the Section on Attainments.
The end of exercises on mental culture or Insight.
One who wishes to enjoy the essence of practice in
this Dispensation should thus develop the sublime dual
This is the ninth chapter of the Compendium of Abhi-
dhamma which deals with the Exercises on Meditation.

As invited by Namba, a person of refined manners, belong-
ing to a respectable family, full of faith and replete with
sterling virtues, to compose a treatise out of compassion
for others, this book has been completed.
By this great merit may the modest monks, who are
purified by wisdom and who shine in discipline, remember
till the end of the world the most famous Tumulasoma
Monastery, the abode of grain, for the acquisition of merit
and for their happiness.
Thus ends the treatise called the Abhidhammattha
Sangaha composed by the great teacher, Anuruddha.
Section 9
57.Nirodhasamapatti—Lit., ‘attainment to cessation’.
Itis so called because during this period the stream
of consciousness temporarily ceases to flow. Mind is
suspended, but vitality persists.
It is only an Anagami or an Arahant who has
developed the Rupa and Arupa Jhanas who can
attain to this supreme state of ecstasy.
When such a person wishes to attain to Nirodha-
samapatti, he first attains to the first jhana and,
emerging from which, he meditates on the tran-
siency, sorrowfulness, and soullessness of condi-
tioned states found in that particular jhana. Likewise,

he attains, in order, to the remaining jhanas and
meditates in the same way until the Arupa-Jhana of
Emerging from this jhana, he makes the follow-
ing four resolutions:—
(i) that his fourfold requisites be not destroyed,
(ii) that he should arise in time when his services
are needed by the Sangha, (iii) that he should
arise in time when he is summoned by the
Buddha, (iv)whether he would live for more
than seven days from that moment.
He has to think of his age-limit as this ecstatic
state normally extends to seven days.
After making these resolutions, he attains to the
last Arupajhana of ‘Neither Perception nor Non-
Perception’ and remains in that state for two javana
thought-moments. Immediately after he attains to
Nirodha-samapatti when his stream of conscious-
ness is temporarily suspended. After seven days he
emerges from this state and experiences for a single
moment an Anagami Phala consciousness in the
case of an Anagami, or an Arahant Phala conscious-
ness in the case of an Arahant. Thereafter arises the
Bhavanga citta.
For details see Visuddhimagga.

Abhidhammattha Sangaha - The Path of Purification

Abhidhammattha Sangaha ( A Manual of Abhidhamma )

Translated by Narada Maha Thera
Published By the Buddhist Missionary Society

The Path of Purification
When the Jhanas are developed, the mind is so purified,
that it resembles a polished mirror, where everything is

clearly reflected in true perspective. Still, there is not com-
plete freedom from unwholesome thoughts, for, by con-
centration, the evil tendencies are only temporarily inhib-
ited. They may rise to the surface at quite unexpected
Discipline regulates words and deeds; concentra-
tion controls the mind; but it is Insight (panna), the third
and the final stage, that enables the aspirant to Saint-
hood to eradicate wholly the defilements inhibited by
At the outset he cultivates ‘Purity of Vision’ (ditthi
visuddhi)138 in order to see things as they truly are. With
a one-pointed mind he analyses and examines this so-
called being. This searching examination shows that what
he has called ‘I’, is merely a complex compound of mind
and matter which are in a state of constant flux,
Having thus gained a correct view of the real nature
of this so-called being, freed from the false notion of a per-
manent soul, he searches for the causes of this “I” person-
ality. He realizes that there is nothing in the world which
is not conditioned by some cause or causes, past or
present, and that his present existence is due to past igno-
rance (avijja), craving (tanha), attachment (upadana),
Kamma, and physical food of the present life. On account
of these five causes this so-called being has arisen, and as
past causes have conditioned the present, so the present
will condition the future. Meditating thus, he transcends
138.The third member of the Path of Purity.

all doubts with regard to past, present and future.
Thereupon he contemplates the truth that all condi-
tioned things are transient (anicca), subject to suffering
(dukkha), and devoid of an immortal soul (anatta).
Wherever he turns his eyes he sees naught but these three
characteristics standing out in bold relief. He realizes that
life is a flux conditioned by internal and external causes.
Nowhere does he find any genuine happiness, for every-
thing is fleeting.
As he thus contemplates the real nature of life, and is
absorbed in meditation, a day comes, when, to his sur-
prise, he witnesses an aura (obhasa) emitted by his body.
He experiences an unprecedented pleasure, happiness,
and quietude. He becomes even-minded, his religious fer-
vour increases, mindfulness becomes clear and insight
keen. Mistaking this advanced state of moral progress for
Sainthood, chiefly owing to the presence of the aura, he
develops a liking for this mental states. Soon the realiza-
tion comes that these new developments are impediments
to moral progress and he cultivates the purity of know-
ledge with regard to the Path and Non-Path.
Perceiving the right path, he resumes his meditation
on the arising (udaya nana) and passing away (vaya nana)
of all conditioned things. Of these two states the latter
becomes more impressed on his mind since change is more
conspicuous than becoming. Therefore he directs his
139. Kankhavitaranavisuddhi, the fourth member of the Path of Purity,
140. Maggamaggananadassanavisuddhi, the fifth member of the Path of Purity.

attention to contemplation of the dissolution of things
(bhanga nana). He perceives that both mind and matter
which constitute this so-called being are in a state of con-
stant flux, not remaining the same for two consecutive
moments. To him then comes the knowledge that all dis-
solving things are fearful (bhava nana). The whole world
appears to him like a pit of burning embers — a source of
danger. Subsequently he reflects on the wretchedness and
vanity (adãnava nana) of the fearful and deluded world,
and develops a feeling of disgust (nibbida nana), followed
by a strong will for deliverance from it (muncitukamyata
With this object in view, he resumes his meditation
on the three characteristics of transiency, sorrow, and
soullessness (patisankha nana), and thereafter develops
complete equanimity towards all conditioned things, hav-
ing neither attachment nor aversion for any worldly object
(uppekkha nana).
Reaching this point of spiritual culture, he chooses
one of the three characteristics for his object of special
endeavour and intently cultivates Insight in that particu-
lar direction until the glorious day when he first realizes
142 his ultimate goal.
141.These nine kinds of Insight—namely, udaya, vaya, bhanga, bhaya, adinava,
nibbida, muncitukamyata, patisakhna, and upekkha nanas are collectively
termed Patipadananadassanavisuddhi—Purity of Vision in discerning the
method, the sixth member of the Path of Purity.
142.Insight found in this supramundane Path Consciousness is known as
Nanadassana visuddhi—Purity of Vision regarding intuitive wisdom, the
seventh member of the Path of Purity.

“As the traveller by night sees the landscape around
him by a flash of lightning, and the picture so obtained
swims long thereafter before his dazzled eyes, so the indi-
vidual seeker, by the flashing light of insight, glimpses Nib-
bana with such clearness that the after-picture never more
fades from his mind.”143
When the spiritual pilgrim realizes Nibbana for the
first time he is called a Sotapanna144—one who has
entered the stream that leads to Nibbana for the first
The stream represents the noble Eightfold Path.
A Stream-Winner is no more a worldling (puthuj-
jana), but an Ariya (Noble).
On attaining this first stage of Sainthood, he eradi-
cates the following three Fetters (saüyojana) that bind
him to existence—namely,
1.Sakkaya-ditthi—sati + kaye + ditthi—literally,
view when a group exists. Here kaya refers to the
five Aggregates of matter, feeling, perception, men-
tal states, and consciousness, or, in other words, to
the complex-compound of mind and matter. The
view that there is one unchanging entity, a perma-
nent soul, when there is a complex-compound of
psycho-physical aggregates is termed sakkaya-
ditthi. Dhammasangani enumerates twenty kinds
143.Dr. Paul Dahlke.
144. See Chapter l.

of such soul theories.
145 Sakkaya-ditthi is usually
rendered by self-illusion, theory of individuality,
illusion of individualism.
2.Vicikiccha—Doubts. They are doubts about 1. the
Buddha, 2. the Dhamma, 3. the Sangha 4. the dis-
ciplinary rules (sikkha), 5. the past, 6. the future,
7.both the past and the future, and 8. Dependent
Arising (Paticca-Samuppada).
3.Sãlabhataparamasa—Adherence to (wrongful)
rites and ceremonies.
Dhammasanganã explains it thus:—“It is the theory
held by ascetics and brahmins outside this doc-
trine, that purification is obtained by rules of moral
conduct, or by rites, or by both rules of moral con-
duct and rites.”
For the eradication of the remaining seven Fetters a Sota-
panna is reborn seven times at most. He gains implicit con-
fidence in the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. He
would not for any reason violate any of the five precepts.
He is not subject to states of woe as he is destined for
With fresh courage as a result of this distant glimpse
of Nibbana, the noble pilgrim makes rapid progress, and
145.See Dhammasangani, Translation, pp. 257–259.
146.Ibid. 1004.

perfecting his Insight, becomes a Sakadagami—Once-
Returner—reaching the second stage of Sainthood by
attenuating two other Fetters — namely, sense-desires
(kamaraga) and illwill (patigha).
Now he is called a Once-Returner because he is born
in the human realm only once, should he not attain Ara-
hantship in that birth itself. It is interesting to note that the
Ariya Saint who has attained the second stage of Sainthood
can only weaken these two powerful Fetters with which he
is bound from a beginningless past. At times, though to a
slight extent, he harbours thoughts of lust and anger.
It is by attaining the third Stage of Sainthood, that
of the Anagami (Never-Returner), that he completely
eradicates these two Fetters. Thereafter he neither returns
to this world nor is he born in the celestial realms, since
he has rooted out the desire for sensual gratification. After
death he is reborn in the Pure Abodes (Suddhavasa), an
environment exclusively reserved for Anagamis and
A layman may become an Anagami, provided he
leads a celibate life.
The Anagami Saint now makes his final advance and
destroying the remaining five Fetters—namely, attach-
ment to Realms of Form (ruparaga), attachment to Form-
less Realms (aruparaga), pride (mana), restlessness
(uddhacca), and ignorance (avijja), attains Arahantship,
the final state of Sainthood.
Stream-Winners, Once-Returners, Never-Returners

are called Sekhas because they have yet to undergo train-
ing. Arahants are called Asekhas because they no longer
undergo any training.
An Arahant, literally, a Worthy One, is not subject to
rebirth because he does not accomplish fresh Kammic
activities, the seeds of his reproduction in matter have all
been destroyed.
The Arahant realizes that what was to be accom-
plished has been done. A heavy burden of sorrow has
finally been relinquished, and all forms of craving and all
shades of ignorance are totally annihilated. The happy pil-
grim now stands on heights more than celestial, far
removed from uncontrolled passions and the defilements
of the world.

Abhidhammattha Sangaha - Emancipation & Individuals

Abhidhammattha Sangaha ( A Manual of Abhidhamma )

Translated by Narada Maha Thera
Published By the Buddhist Missionary Society

§7.Tattha anattanupassana attabhinivesam muncanti,
Sunnatanupassana nama vimokkhamukham hoti. Anicca-
nupassana vipallasanimittam muncanti, animittanupassana
nama. Dukkhanupassana tanhapanidhim muncanti, appa-
nihitanupassana nama. Tasma yadi vutthanagaminivi-
passana anattato vipassati, sunnato vimokkho nama hoti
maggo. Yadi aniccato vipassati, animitto vimokkho
nama. Yadi dukkhato vipassati appanihito vimokkho
nama’ti ca maggo vipassanagamanavasena maggavithiyam.
Phalasamapattivithiyam pana yathavuttanayena vipas-
santanam yathasakam phalamuppajjamanam’ pi vipas-
sanagamanavasen’eva sunnatadivimokkho’ti ca pavuccati.
âlambanavasena pana sarasavasena ca namattayam sabbat-
tha sabbesam’ pi samam’eva.
Ayam’ettha vimokkhabhedo.
§8.Ettha pana sotapattimaggam bhavetva ditthivi-
cikicchapahanena pahinapayagamano sattakkhattu-
paramo sotapanno nama hoti.

Sakadagamimaggam bhavetva ragadosamohanam
tanukaratta sakadagami nama hoti. Sakid’eva imam
lokam agantva anagamimaggam bhavetva kamaragavyapa-
danamanavasesappahanena anagami nama hoti, anagantva
Arahattamaggam bhavetva anavasesakilesappahanena
araha nama hoti, Khinasavo loke aggadakkhineyyo.
Ayam’ettha puggalabhedo.
§7.Therein, the contemplation of no-soul, that discards
the clinging to a soul (49), becomes an avenue of Emanci-
pation, and is termed ‘Void-contemplation’. The contem-
plation of impermanence, that discards the signs of false
notion (50), becomes an avenue of Emancipation, and is
termed ‘Signless-contemplation’. The contemplation of
suffering, that discards the hankering of attachment (51),
becomes an avenue of Emancipation, and is termed
Hence, if with the ‘Emergence Insight leading to the
Path’ one contemplates on no-soul, then the Path is known
as ‘Void-Emancipation’; if one contemplates on imperma-
nence, then the Path is known as ‘Signless-Emancipation;
if one contemplates on sorrow, then the Path is known as
‘Unhankering-Emancipation’. Thus the Path receives
three names according to the way of Insight. Likewise, the
Fruit, (occurring) in the Path thought-process, receives

these three names according to the way of the Path.
However, in the thought-process as regards the
attainment to fruition, to those who contemplate in the
foregoing manner, the Fruits that arise according to the
Paths, are termed ‘Void-Emancipation’ etc., only in accord-
ance with the way of Insight. But, as regards objects and
respective functions, the triad of names is applied equally
to all (Paths and Fruits) everywhere.
Herein this is the section on Emancipation.
§8.Herein, developing the Path of Stream-Attainment
(52), eradicating false views and doubts, and escaping
from going to woeful states, one becomes a Stream-
Winner who is born seven times at most.
Developing the Path of Once-Returning (53), and
attenuating lust, hatred, and ignorance, one becomes a
Once-Returner, returning to this world only once.
Developing the Path of Never-Returning (54), and
totally eradicating sensual desires and hatred, one be-
comes a Never-Returner, not returning to this (Sentient)
Developing the Path of the Worthy, and totally erad-
icating all defilements, one becomes a Worthy One (55),
who is free from Corruptions, and who is fit to receive the
highest offerings in this world (56).
Herein this is the section on Individuals.

Section 7
49.Attabhinivesa—The stronghold of a soul like the
doer of action, the reaper of fruit, ‘this is my soul’
50.Vipallasanimittam—Three vipallasas or misconcep-
tions are discarded by meditating on impermanence.
They are ‘erroneous perception’ (sannavipallasa),
‘erroneous ideas’ (cittavipallasa), and ‘erroneous
views’ (ditthivipallasa). On account of these three
misconceptions people regard what is impermanent
as permanent.
51.Tanhapanidhi—Such hankerings like ‘this is mine’,
‘this is happiness’.
Section 8
52.Sotapanno—One who has entered the stream that
leads to Nibbana for the first time. There are three
classes of Sotapannas — namely,
i.Those who will be born seven times at most in
heavenly and earthly realms (sattakkhattupa-
rama). Before seeking an eighth birth, they attain
ii.Those who seek birth in noble families two or three
times before they attain Arahantship (kolamkola).

iii.Those who are born only once more before they
attain Arahantship (ekabiji).
A sotapanna has unshakable confidence in the
Buddha, Dhamma, and the Sangha. He neither vio-
lates the five Precepts nor commits the heinous
crimes. Free from birth in woeful states, he is ever
destined for enlightenment.
53.Sakadagami—One who returns to this world of
human beings only once. After attaining Sakadagami
in this life, he may be born in a heavenly realm and
attain Arahantship seeking birth in the human plane.
There are five kinds of Sakadagamis — namely,
i.Those who attain Sakadagami here and attain
Parinibbana here itself.
ii.Those who attain Sakadagami in a heavenly realm
and attain Parinibbana there.
iii.Those who attain Sakadagami here and attain
Parinibbana in a heavenly realm.
iv.Those who attain Sakadagami in a heavenly realm
and attain Parinibbana in this human plane.
v.Those who attain Sakadagami here and, having
being born in a heavenly realm, seek birth in this
human plane and attain Parinibbana.

54. Anagami—One who will not return to this Sense-
sphere (Kamaloka). Such beings are born in the ‘Pure
Abodes’ (Suddhavasa), higher Brahma realms where
Anagamis abide till they attain Arahantship.
There are five classes of Anagamis:—
i.Those who attain Parinibbana within the first half
life-span in the Pure Abodes (antaraparinibbayi).
ii.Those who attain Parinibbana having lived more
than half a life-span (upahaccaparinibbayi).
iii.Those who attain Parinibbana with exertion
(sasankhara parinibbayi).
iv.Those who attain Parinibbana without exertion
v.Those who, passing beyond one Brahma realm to
another higher Brahma realm, attain Parinibbana
in the Highest Brahma realm (uddhamsota
55.Khinasavo—synonymous with an Arahant, a Worthy
One, because he has destroyed all the defilements.

Abhidhammattha Sangaha - Different Kinds of Purity Notes

Abhidhammattha Sangaha ( A Manual of Abhidhamma )

Translated by Narada Maha Thera
Published By the Buddhist Missionary Society

Section 6
24.Vipassana or Insight is the third and final stage on
the Path of Sainthood. The chief object of Insight is
to understand things as they truly are.
25.Anicca, i. e., the fleeting nature of both mind and
matter. Changeableness is a characteristic of every-
thing that is conditioned. All conditioned things are
constantly changing, not remaining static for two
consecutive moments. Mind, in fact, changes even
faster than matter. Normally matter endures only for
seventeen thought-moments. Commentators state
that, during the time occupied by a flash of lightning,
billions of thought-moments may arise.
26.Dukkha—All conditioned things are subject to suf-
fering. Birth is suffering, decay is suffering, disease is
suffering, death is suffering. Union with the unpleas-
ant is suffering. Separation from the pleasant is suf-
fering. Not to get what one desires is suffering. In
brief, the five aggregates of attachment are suffering.

27.Anatta—or Soullessness is the crux of Buddhism. As
there is no permanent entity in matter, so also there is
no unchanging entity in mind conceived as an ‘ego’ or
‘soul’. In everything mundane and supramundane, con-
ditioned and non-conditioned, there is no permanent
soul. Hence the Buddha in the Dhammapada stated —
‘sabbe dhamma anatta—all Dhammas are soulless’.
With regard to Anicca and Dukkha the Buddha said—
‘sankhara—conditioned things’. With regard to Anatta,
the Buddha employed the term dhamma to include
supramundane unconditioned Nibbana as well.
It may be mentioned that it was after hearing the
‘Anattalakkhana Sutta’, the discourse on soulless-
ness, that the first five monks attained Arahantship.
The aspirant does not usually meditate on all
these three characteristics. Of them, he takes only
that which appeals to him most. Deliverance, gained
by meditating on each of them, is named accordingly.
28.Sammasananana—Lit., ‘handling-knowledge’, is the in-
vestigation of aggregates as composite (kalapavasena).
29.Patisankhanana—is the re-contemplation of condi-
tioned things in order to find out the means to escape
30.Sankharupekkhanana—is perfect equanimity to-
wards all conditioned things, having neither attach-

ment nor aversion, resulting from developing the
foregoing different kinds of Insight.
31.Anulomanana—is the ‘adaptation knowledge’
gained by perfecting the foregoing nine kinds of
Insight. It is so called because it conforms itself to the
37 Factors of Enlightenment and qualifies the aspir-
ant for the higher path.
32.Vimokkha—so called because they deliver one from
the ten Fetters etc.
33.Sunnata—devoid of a soul. Emancipation gained by
meditating on soullessness (anatta) is called Sunnata-
34.Animitta—free from the signs of permanence etc.
Emancipation gained by meditating on ‘imperma-
nence’ (anicca) is called Animittavimokkha.
35.Appanihita—free from the hankering of craving.
Emancipation gained by meditating on ‘suffering’
(dukkha) is called Appanihitavimokkha.
36.Silavisuddhi—Purity of Morals, is the first of seven
‘Purities’. It consists of four kinds, all pertaining to
the life of a Bhikkhu.
The first is Patimokkhasamvarasila. ‘That which
saves one who observes it from woeful states’ is the

commentarial explanation of ‘Patimokkha’. Pa is also
explained as the Buddha’s Teaching. Atipamokkha
means extremely important. Patimokkha therefore
means “Fundamental Teaching” or “Fundamental Pre-
cepts”. It deals with 220137 disciplinary rules which
every Bhikkhu is expected to observe. As it restrains
one from evil deeds etc., it is termed ‘samvara’. Sila is
used in the sense of ‘composure’ (samadhana) and
‘support’ (upadharana). It is so called because it tends
to discipline thoughts, words, and deeds and because
it acts as a support for other virtues. Indriyasamvara-
sila, the second Sila, deals with the control of the six
senses. âjivaparisuddhisila, the third Sila, deals with
the right livelihood of a Bhikkhu. In obtaining the nec-
essaries of life, a Bhikkhu should not act in an unbe-
coming way. Paccayasannissitasila, the fourth Sila, is
concerned with the unselfish use of the four requi-
sites—robes, alms, lodging, and medicine.
37.Cittavisuddhi—is the second ‘Purity’. It is the purity
of mind, gained by developing the Jhanas, temporar-
ily inhibiting the Hindrances. A purified mind is like a
polished mirror where everything is reflected in its
true perspective. With a purified mind one can see
things as they truly are.
38.Ditthivisuddhi—is the third purity. It is so called
137.227 including seven ways of settling disputes (adhikarana samatha dhamma)

because it purifies one from the false theory of a per-
manent soul. This correct comprehension results from
investigating mind and matter as regards their salient
characteristics (lakkhana), function or essential prop-
erties (rasa), the way, of manifestation (paccu-
patthana), and their immediate cause (padatthana).
39.Kankhavitaranavisuddhi—is the fourth ‘Purity’ which
attempts to transcend sceptical doubts as regards cause
and effect, the past, the present, and the future. This is
called a purity because it removes the stain of errone-
ous views of ‘chance’, ‘causelessness’, etc.
To achieve this purity one meditates on the vari-
ous causes that tend to produce present mind and
matter, and on the causes that sustain them in the
present. He understands that present mind and mat-
ter at conception were conditioned by past igno-
rance, craving, grasping and Kamma, and, during
lifetime, matter is conditioned by kamma, mind, sea-
sonal phenomena, and edible food, while mind is
sustained by the senses and their corresponding
objects. Thus he realizes the second noble truth of
the cause of suffering and rids himself of doubts.
40.Maggamaggananadassanavisuddhi—This is the fifth
The aspirant who has cleared his doubts meditates
again with better understanding on the three charac-

teristics of anicca, dukkha, and anatta. He realizes that
life is a mere flowing, a continuous undivided move-
ment. He finds no genuine happiness, for every form
of pleasure is only a prelude to pain. What is transient
is painful, and where change and sorrow prevail there
cannot be a permanent ego or soul. The arising and
passing away of conditioned things become very con-
spicuous to him. As he is thus absorbed in meditation
he witnesses an aura (obhaso) emanating from his
body as a result of his keen insight. He experiences
also an unprecedented joy (piti), happiness (sukha)
and quietude (passaddhi). He becomes strenuous
(paggaho) and even-minded (upekkha). His religious
fervour increases (adhimokkha), mindfulness (sati)
strengthens, and wisdom (nana) ripens. Labouring
under the misconception that he has attained Saint-
hood, chiefly owing to the presence of the aura, he
yearns (nikanti) for this state of mind. Soon he real-
izes that these temptations are only impedi-
ments(upakkilesa) to Insight and that he has not
really attained Sainthood. Accordingly he endeavours
to distinguish between the right and wrong path
(maggamaggananadassana). It is called a ‘purity’
because it clears up the misconception as regards the
actual ‘path’. He understands, ‘This is the right path,
that is the wrong path’.
41.Patipadananadassanavisuddhi—is the sixth ‘purity’.

This term is collectively applied to the nine kinds of
Insight beginning with the knowledge as regards the
arising and passing away of conditioned things and
ending with the knowledge of adaptation that occurs
in the Path thought-moment immediately preceding
the Gotrabhu moment. (See p. 461, f.n. 136.)
42.Appana, the supramundane Path (lokuttaramagga).
43. See pp. 248, 461.
44.Vutthanagaminivipassana—is the name given to
both Sankharupekkhanana and Anulomanana of the
tens kinds of Insight. It is so called because it leads to
the Path emerging from woeful states and signs of
conditioned things.
45.Gotrabhu—lit., means ‘overcoming the worldly line-
age’. The object of this thought-moment is Nibbana,
but the actual realization of Nibbana by the eradication
of passions occurs at the Path thought-moment that
immediately follows. This particular thought-moment
in the three higher stages of Sainthood is termed
‘vodana’ (pure) as the aspirant is already an Ariya.
46. Immediately after the Gotrabhu thought-moment
there arises the Path thought-moment of the Sota-
panna. It is at this stage that one comprehends the

Truth of Suffering, eradicates craving, the cause of
suffering, and actually realizes Nibbana for the first
time in his life. The eight factors that constitute the
Noble Path are also fully developed at this stage.
This particular thought-moment is termed ‘Sotapat-
timagga.’ Sota here means the stream that leads to
Nibbana. It is the Noble Eightfold Path. âpatti
means ‘entering for the first time’. It is called
‘magga’ because it arises, destroying the passions.
This Path thought-moment arises only once in the
course of one’s lifetime, and is immediately fol-
lowed by two or three ‘Fruit’ (phala) moments
before the stream of consciousness lapses into bha-
vanga. This is the reason why the Dhamma is called
‘akalika’ (immediately effective).
47.Paccavekkhanananani—As a rule after each of the
four stages of Sainthood one reflects on the Path and
Fruit one has attained, on the Nibbana one has real-
ized, on the defilements one has destroyed, and, in
the case of the first three stages, on the defilements
one has yet to destroy. An Arahant who has no more
defilements to destroy knows that he is delivered.
There are altogether 19 kinds of such reflective
knowledge, 15 pertaining to the first three stages of
Sainthood, and 4 to the last stage.
The Pali phrase—n’aparam itthatthaya—No more
of this state again—refers to this process of reflection.

48.Nanadassanavisuddhi is the name given to the con-
templative knowledge, a mental state of wisdom found
in Path-Consciousness. It is called a ‘purity’ because it
is completely free from all stains or defilements, result-
ing from the realization of the four Truths.

Abhidhammattha Sangaha - Different Kinds of Purity

Abhidhammattha Sangaha ( A Manual of Abhidhamma )

Translated by Narada Maha Thera
Published By the Buddhist Missionary Society

§6.Vipassanakammatthane pana 1. Silavisuddhi,
2.Cittavisuddhi, 3. Ditthivisuddhi, 4. Kankhavitaranavisud-
dhi, 5. Maggamaggananadassanavisuddhi, 6. Patipadanana
dassanavisuddhi, 7. ¥anadassanavisuddhi’ cati sattavidhena
Aniccalakkhanam, Dukkhalakkhanam, Anattalakkha-
nan c’ati tini Lakkhanani.
Aniccanupassana, Dukkhanupassana, Anattanupassana
c’ati tisso Anupassana.
1. Sammasanananam, 2. Udayavyayananam, 3.Bhan-

gananam 4. Bhayananam, 5. âdinavananam, 6.¥ibbi-
dananam, 7. Muncitukamyatananam, 8.Patisankhananam,
9.Samkharupekkhananam, 10. Anulomananam, c’ati dasa
Sunnato Vimokkho, Animitto Vimokkho, Appanihito
Vimokkho c’ati tayo Vimokkha.
Sunnatanupassana, Animittanupassana, Appanihitanu-
passana c’ati tini Vimokkhamukhani ca veditabbani.
Katham? Patimokkhasamvara Silam, Indriyasamvara
Silam, âjivaparisuddhi Silam, Paccayasannissita Silam
c’ati catuparisuddhi Silam Silavisuddhi nama.
Upacarasamadhi, Appanasamadhi c’ati duvidho’pi
Samadhi Cittavisuddhi nama.
Lakkhana-rasa – paccupatthana – padatthana – vasena
nama-rupapariggaho Ditthivisuddhi nama.
Tesam’eva ca nama-rupanam paccayapariggaho
Kankhavitarana-visuddhi nama.
Tato param pana tathapariggahitesu sappaccayesu
tebhumakasankharesu atitadibhedabhinnesu khandhadina-
yam’ arabbha kalapavasena sankhipitva aniccam khayat-
thena, dukkham bhayatthena, anatta asarakatthena’ ti
addhanavasena santativasena khanavasena va sammasana-
nanena lakkhanattayam sammasantassa tes’veva paccaya-
vasena khanavasena ca udayavyayananena udayavyayam
samanupassantassa ca,
Obhaso piti passaddhi adhimokkho ca paggaho
Sukham nanamupatthanamupekkha ca nikanti c’ati.

Obhasadi vipassanupakkilese paripanthapariggaha-
vasena maggamaggalakkhanavavatthanam Maggamagga-
¥anadassanavisuddhi nama.
Tatha paripanthavimuttassa pana tassa udayavyayana-
nato patthaya yavanuloma tilakkhanam vipassanaparam-
paraya patipajjantassa nava vipassanananani Patipadana-
nadassanavisuddhi nama.
Tass’evam patipajjantassa pana vipassanaparipakam’-
agamma idani appana uppajjissati’ti bhavangam vocchin-
ditva uppannamanodvaravajjananantaram dve tini vipas-
sanacittani yam kinci aniccadilakkhanam’arabbha pari-
kammopacaranulomanamena pavattanti. Ya sikhap-
patta sa sanulomasankharupekkhavutthanagaminivipas-
sana’ti’ ca pavuccati. Tato param gotrabhucittam
nibbanam’ alambitva puthujjanagottamabhibhavantam
ariyagottamabhisambhontan ca pavattati. Tass’anantaram
eva maggo dukkhasaccam parijananto samudayasaccam
pajahanto nirodhasaccam sacchikaronto maggasaccam
bhavanavasena appanavithim’ otarati. Tato param dve tini
phalacittani pavattitva bhavangapato’va hoti. Puna
bhavangam vocchinditva paccavekkhanananani pavattanti.
Maggam phalas ca nibbanam paccavekkhati panóito
Hine kilese sese ca paccavekkhati va nava.
Chabbisuddhikam’ en’ evam bhavetabbo catubbidho
Nanadassanavisuddhi nama maggo pavuccati.
Ayam’ ettha visuddhibhedo.

Different Kinds of Purity
§6.In the exercises on mental culture pertaining to
Insight (24) the section on ‘Purity’ is sevenfold:—
1.Purity of Morals, 2. Purity of Mind, 3. Purity of
Views, 4. Purity of Transcending Doubts, 5. Purity of
Vision in discerning the Path and Non-Path, 6. Purity of
Vision in discerning the method, 7. Purity of Vision regard-
ing intuitive wisdom.
There are three Characteristic Marks:—
1.The Characteristic Mark of Impermanence
(25), 2. The Characteristic Mark of Suffering (26), and
3.The Characteristic Mark of No-soul (27).
There are three Contemplations:—
1.The Contemplation on Impermanence, 2. The
Contemplation on Suffering and 3. The Contemplation on
There are ten kinds of Insight:—
1.Investigating knowledge (28), 2. Knowledge
with regard to the arising and passing away (of conditioned
things), 3. Knowledge with regard to the dissolution (of
things), 4. Knowledge (of dissolving things) as fearful,
5.Knowledge of (fearful) things as baneful, 6.Knowledge of
(baneful) things as disgusting, 7. Knowledge as regards the
wish to escape therefrom, 8. Knowledge of reflecting con-
templation (29), 9. Knowledge of equanimity towards con-
ditioned things (30), and 10.Knowledge of adaptation (31).

There are three Emancipations (32):—
1.Emancipation through Void (33), 2. Emancipa-
tion through Signlessness (34) and 3. Emancipation through
Desirelessness (35).
There are three Doors of Emancipation:—
1.Contemplation on the Void, 2. Contemplation on
the Signlessness and 3. Contemplation on Desirelessness.
Purity of morals (36) consists of four kinds of perfect
discipline — namely,
1.Moral Discipline as regards the Fundamental
2.Discipline as regards sense-restraint,
3.Discipline as regards purity of livelihood,
4.Discipline as regards the four requisites.
Purity of Mind (37) consists of two kinds of concentration
— namely, ‘proximate concentration’, and ‘established or
ecstatic concentration.’
Purity of Views (38) is the understanding of mind
and matter with respect to their characteristics, function,
mode of appearance, and proximate cause.
Purity of Transcending Doubts (39) is the compre-
hension of the causes of those very mind and matter.
After comprehending the causes, the meditator, con-
sidering the modes of aggregates etc, formulates in groups
the conditioned things of the triple plane, that have arisen
with causes, differing according to the past etc., and that

have been comprehended in the foregoing manner. Now
he meditates on the three characteristics — impermanence
in the sense of dissolution, suffering in the sense of fearful-
ness, and soullessness in the sense of unsubstantiality —
by way of duration, continuity, and momentariness. To
him who meditates on the arising and passing away of
things by means of the knowledge so named with respect
to causes and momentariness there arise—
an aura, joy, quietude, excessive faith, effort,
happiness, wisdom, mindfulness, equanimity
and a liking (for that state).
Purity of Vision in discerning what is the Path and
what is not the Path (40), is the determining of character-
istics of Path and not Path by understanding aura etc. as
inimical impediments of insight.
Getting rid of these inimical impediments, the medi-
tator reflects on the three Characteristics. Now to him,
starting from the knowledge of arising and passing away,
and extending up to the knowledge of adaptation, there
arise in one continuous stream of contemplation, nine
kinds of Insight. By Purity of Vision that discerns the
method (41) is meant these nine kinds of knowledge.
When he thus practises contemplation, owing to the ripen-
ing of insight (he feels) ‘Now the development (of the
path) (42) will arise’. Thereupon arresting the life-
continuum, arises mind-door consciousness, followed by

two or three (moments of) insight consciousness, having
for their object any of the Characteristics such as imperma-
nence etc. They are termed ‘preliminary’, ‘proximate’, and
‘adaptation’ (moments) (43).
That knowledge of equanimity towards conditioned
things, together with knowledge that conforms (to the
Truths), when perfected, is also termed ‘Insight of emer-
gence leading to the Path’ (44).
Thereafter the Gotrabhu-consciousness (45), hav-
ing Nibbana as its object, occurs, overcoming the line-
age of the worldlings, and evolving the lineage of the
Immediately after that consciousness, the Path (of
the Stream-Winner), realizing the Truth of suffering, erad-
icating the Truth of its cause, realizing the Truth of its ces-
sation, and developing the Truth of the Way to its cessa-
tion, descends into the transcendental stream.
After that Path-consciousness two or three moments
of Fruit-consciousness arise and subside into the life-
continuum (46). Then arresting the life-continuum, the
knowledge of reflection occurs.
The wise man reflects (47) on the Path, Fruit, Nib-
bana, defilements destroyed, and either reflects or does
not reflect on the remaining defilements.
136.The thought-process of a Stream-Winner:—
• • • •
Manodvaravajjana, parikamma, upacara,anuloma,
• • •• •

Thus the fourfold Path which has to be developed by
degrees by means of the sixfold purity is called the ‘Purity
of Intuitive Knowledge’ (48).
Herein this is the section on Purity.

Abhidhammattha Sangaha - Compendium of Subjects for Mental Culture Notes

Abhidhammattha Sangaha ( A Manual of Abhidhamma )

Translated by Narada Maha Thera
Published By the Buddhist Missionary Society

Section 1
1.Kammatthana—Here this term is used in a technical
sense. Kamma means the act of meditation or con-
templation. òhana, literally, station, ground, or occa-
sion, implies subjects or exercises. Kammatthana,
therefore, means ‘subjects of meditation’ or ‘medita-
tion exercises’. There are forty such subjects of medi-
2.Samatha, derived from
√ sam, to lull, to subdue,
denotes ‘tranquillity’ or ‘quietude’, gained by subdu-
ing the Hindrances. It is synonymous with concentra-
tion (samadhi) which leads to the development of
jhanas. By concentration passions are only temporar-
ily inhibited.
3.Vipassana, derived from vi +
√ dis, to see, liter-

ally, means perceiving in diverse ways, that is in the
light of transiency, sorrowfulness, and soullessness.
It is rendered by ‘insight’, contemplation’, ‘intuition’,
‘introspection’. The main object of vippassana is to
see things as they truly are, in order to gain one’s
4.Carita signifies the intrinsic nature of a person which
is revealed when one is in a normal state without
being preoccupied with anything. The temperaments
of people differ owing to the diversity of their actions
or Kammas. Habitual actions tend to form particular
Raga (lust) is predominant in some, while dosa
(anger, hatred or illwill), in others. Most people
belong to these two categories. There are a few oth-
ers who lack intelligence and are more or less igno-
rant (mohacarita). Akin to the ignorant are those
whose minds oscillate, unable to focus their atten-
tion deliberately on one thing (vitakkacarita). By
nature some are exceptionally devout (saddha-
carita), while others are exceptionally intelligent
Thus, in brief, there are six kinds of temperaments.
By combining them with one another, we get 63
types. With the inclusion of ditthicarita (speculative
temperament) there are 64.

5. The preliminary stages of mental development are
termed Parikammabhavana. Mental culture, from
the moment one develops the conceptualized image
and temporarily inhibits the Hindrances, until the
Gotrabhu thought-moment in the Jhana Javana pro-
cess, is termed Upacarabhavana.
The thought-moment that immediately follows
the Gotrabhu thought-moment is called Appana,
ecstatic concentration, because vitakka (initial appli-
cation), the foremost Jhana constituent, persists as if
firmly fixed upon the object of concentration.
Jhana Thought-Process:—
Manodvaravajjana / Parikamma, Upacara,
Anuloma, Gotrabhu, Appana / Bhavaïga.
6. Any object, such as a Kasina, used for preliminary
mental culture is termed ‘Parikammanimitta’.
The same object, when mentally perceived with
closed eyes, is termed ‘Uggahanimitta’.
The identical visualised image, freed from all
Kasina defects, is termed ‘Patibhaganimitta’ when it
serves as an object of Upacara and Appana Bhavana.
7.Kasina means ‘whole’, ‘all’, complete’ it is so called
because the light issuing from the conceptualized
image is extended everywhere without any limitation.
In the case of Pathavikasina one makes a circle of
about one span and four fingers in diameter and, cov-

ering it with dawn-coloured clay, smoothes it well. If
there be not enough clay of dawn-colour, he may put
in some other kind of clay beneath. This hypnotic
circle is known as kasina-manóala and is also called
Parikammanimitta. Now he places this object two
and a half cubits away from him and concentrates on
it, saying mentally or inaudibly—pathavi, pathavi or
earth, earth. The purpose is to gain the one-
pointendeness of the mind. When he does this for
some time, perhaps weeks, or months, or year—he
would be able to close his eyes and visualise the
object. This visualised object is called ‘Uggaha-
nimitta’. Then he concentrates on this visualised
image until it develops into a conceptualised or counter-
image, free from original kasina faults. This is known
as the ‘Pathibhaganimitta’. As he continually concen-
trates on this abstract concept he is said to be in pos-
session of proximate or neighbourhood concentra-
tion (Upacarasamadhi). At this stage the innate five
Hindrances are temporarily inhibited. Eventually he
gains ‘ecstatic concentration’ (Appana samadhi).
For the water-kasina one may take a vessel full of
colourless water, preferably rain water, and concen-
trate on it, saying—apo, apo, (water, water) until he
gains one-pointedness of the mind.
To develop the fire-Kasina one may kindle a fire
before him and concentrate on it through a hole, a
span and four fingers in diameter, in rush-mat, a

piece of leather, or a piece of cloth, saying—tejo, tejo
(fire, fire).
One who develops the air-kasina concentrates on
the wind that enters through window-space or a hole
in the wall, saying—vayo vayo (air, air).
To develop the colour kasinas one may take a
manóala of the prescribed size and colour it blue, yel-
low, red, or white and concentrate on it repeating the
name of the colour as in the case of the other kasinas.
One may even concentrate on blue, yellow, red,
and white flowers.
Light-kasina may be developed by concentrating
on the moon, or on an unflickering lamplight, or on
a circle of light cast on the ground, or on the wall by
sunlight or moonlight entering through a wall-
crevice or holes, saying—aloka, aloka (light, light)
Space-kasina can be developed by concentrating
on a hole, a span and four fingers in diameter, in
either a well-covered pavilion or a piece of leather or
a mat, saying—okasa, okasa (space, space).
It may be mentioned that light and space kasinas
are not mentioned in the Texts.
8.Asubha—Those ten kinds of corpses were found in
ancient Indian cemeteries and charnel places where
dead bodies were not buried or cremated and where
flesh-eating animals frequent. In modern days they
are out of the question.

9.Anassati—literally, means repeated reflection or
constant mindfulness.
i.Buddhanussati is the reflection on the virtues of
the Buddha as, for example,
“Such indeed is that Exalted One — Worthy,
Fully Enlightened, Endowed with Wisdom and Con-
duct, Well-farer, Knower of the Worlds, an Incompa-
rable Charioteer for the training of individuals,
Teacher of gods and men, Omniscient, and Holy.”
ii.Dhammanussati is the reflection on the virtues
of the Doctrine as, for example,
“Well-expounded is the doctrine by the Exalted
One, to be realized by oneself, of immediate fruit,
inviting investigation, leading to Nibbana, to be
understood by the wise, each one for himself.”
iii.Saïghanussati is the reflection on the virtues of
the pure members of the Noble Celibate Order as
“Of good conduct is the Order of the disciples of
the Exalted One; of upright conduct is the Order of
the disciples of the Exalted One; of wise conduct is
the Order of the disciples of the Exalted One; of duti-
ful conduct is the Order of the disciples of the Exalted
One. The four pairs of persons constitute eight indi-
viduals. This Order of the disciples of the Exalted

One is worthy of offerings, is worthy of hospitality, is
worthy of gifts, is worthy of reverential salutation, is
an incomparable field of merit for the world.”
iv.Sãlanussati is reflection on the perfection of
one’s own virtuous conduct.
v.Caganussati is reflection on one’s own charit-
able nature.
vi.Devatanussati—“Deities are born in such ex-
alted states on account of their faith and other
virtues. I too possess them.” Thus when one re-
flects again and again on one’s own faith and
other virtues, placing deities as witnesses it is
called Devatanussati.
vii.Upasamanussati is reflection on the attributive
qualities of Nibbana such as the cessation of suf-
fering etc.
viii.Marananussati is reflection on the termination
of psycho-physical life.
Contemplation on death enables one to compre-
hend the fleeting nature of life. When one under-
stands that death is certain and life is uncertain one
endeavours to make the best use of one’s life by
working for self-development and for the develop-
ment of others instead of wholly indulging in sensual
pleasures. Constant meditation on death does not

make one pessimistic and lethargic, but, on the con-
trary, it makes one more active and energetic.
Besides, one can face death with serenity.
While contemplating death, one may think that
life is like a flame or that all so-called beings are the
outward temporary manifestations of the invisible
Kammic energy just as an electric light is the outward
manifestation of the invisible electric energy. Choos-
ing various similies, one may meditate on the uncer-
tainty of life and on the certainty of death.
ix.Kayagatasati is reflection on the 32 impure
parts of the body such as hair, hair of the body,
nails, teeth, skin, etc.
This meditation on the loathsomeness of the
body, leads to dispassion. Many Bhikkhus in the time
of the Buddha attained Arahantship by meditating on
these impurities. If one is not conversant with all the
thirty-two parts, one may meditate on one part such
as bones.
Within this body, is found a skeleton. It is full of
flesh which is covered with a skin. Beauty is nothing
but skin deep. When one reflects thus on the impure
parts of the body passionate attachment to this body
gradually disappears.
This meditation may not appeal to those who are
not sensual. They may meditate on the innate crea-
tive possibilities of this complex machinery of man.

The thirty-two parts of the body are enumerated
as follows:—
“Hair, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sin-
ews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm,
spleen, lungs, bowels, mesentery, stomach, faeces,
brain, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, lymph, tears,
grease, saliva, nasal mucus, articular fluid, and urine.”
x.ânapanasati is mindfulness on respiration. âna
means inhalation and apana exhalation. In some
books these two terms are explained in the
reverse way. Concentration on the breathing
process leads to one-pointedness of the mind, and
ultimately to Insight which leads to Arahantship.
This is one of the best subjects of meditation,
which appeals equally to all. The Buddha also prac-
tised anapanasati before His Enlightenment.
A detailed exposition of this meditation is found
in the Satipatthana Sutta and in the Visuddhi Magga.
A few practical hints are given here for the bene-
fit of the average reader.
Adopting a convenient posture, breathe out and
close the mouth. Then breathe in through the nostrils
calmly, without strain. Inhale first and count men-
tally one. Exhale and count two, concentrating on
the breathing process. In this manner count up to
ten, constantly focusing your attention on respira-
tion. It is possible for the mind to wander before one

counts up to ten. But one need not be discouraged.
Try again until success is achieved. Gradually one
can increase the number of series, say five series of
ten. Later one can concentrate on the breathing proc-
ess without counting. Some prefer counting as it aids
a concentration; while others prefer not to count.
What is essential is concentration, and not counting
which is secondary. When one does this concentra-
tion exercise one feels light in body and mind and
very peaceful. One might perhaps feel as if one were
floating in the air. When one practises this concentra-
tion for a certain period, a day might come when one
will realize that his so-called body is supported by
mere breath, and that the body perishes when
breathing ceases. Thus one fully realizes imperma-
nence. Where there is change there cannot be a per-
manent entity or an immortal soul. Insight might
then be developed to gain Arahantship.
It is now clear that the object of this concentra-
tion on respiration is not merely to gain one-pointed-
ness but also to cultivate Insight in order to obtain
This simple method may be pursued by all with-
out any harm.
For more details readers are referred to the
Visuddhi Magga.
In some Suttas this simple method of respiration
is explained as follows:—

“Attentively he breathes in, attentively he
breathes out.
1.When making a long inhalation he knows:
‘Imake a long inhalation’; when making a long
exhalation he knows: ‘I make a long exhalation’.
2.When making a short inhalation he knows,
‘Imake a short inhalation’; when making a short
exhalation he knows, ‘I make a short exhalation’.
3.Clearly perceiving the entire (breath) body
(sabbakayapatisaüvedi), I will inhale’: Thus he
trains himself; clearly perceiving the entire
(breath) body ‘I will exhale’: thus he trains
4.‘Calming this breathing process (passambhayaü
kayasaïkharaü), ‘I will inhale’: thus he trains
himself; ‘calming this breathing process, I will
exhale’: thus he trains himself.”
♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦
11.Brahmavihara—Here Brahma means sublime, as in
Brahmacariya (sublime life). Vihara means mode or
‘state of conduct’ or ‘state of living’. They are also
termed appamanna (limitless, boundless) because
these thoughts are radiated towards all beings, with-
out limit or obstruction.
i.Metta (saüskrt Maitri)—loving-kindness, benevo-

lence, goodwill—is defined as that which softens
one’s heart. It is not carnal love or personal
affection. The direct enemy of Metta is hatred,
illwill or aversion (kodha); its indirect enemy is
personal affection (pema). Metta embraces all
beings without exception. The culmination of
Metta is the identification of oneself with all
beings (sabbattata). It is the wish for the good
and happiness of all. Benevolent attitude is its
chief characteristic. It discards illwill.
ii.Karuna—compassion—is defined as that which
makes the hearts of the good quiver when others
are subject to suffering or that which dissipates
the sufferings of others. Its chief characteristic is
the wish to remove the sufferings of others. Its
direct enemy is wickedness (hiüsa) and its indi-
rect enemy is passionate grief (domanassa).
Compassion embraces sorrow-stricken beings,
and it eliminates cruelty.
iii.Mudita is not mere sympathy but sympathetic
or appreciative joy. Its direct enemy is jealousy,
and its indirect enemy is exhilaration (pahasa).
Its chief characteristic is happy acquiescence in
others’ prosperity and success (anumodana).
Mudita embraces prosperous beings. It elimi-
nates dislike (arati) and is the congratulatory
attitude of a person.

iv. Upekkha, literally, means to view impartially,
that, is, with neither attachment nor aversion. It
is not hedonic indifference but perfect equanim-
ity or a well-balanced mind. It is the balanced
state of mind amidst all vicissitudes of life such
as praise and blame, pain and happiness, gain
and loss, repute and disrepute. Its direct enemy
is attachment (raga) and its indirect enemy is
callousness. Upekkha discards clinging and aver-
sion. Impartial attitude is its chief characteristic.
Here Upekkha does not mean mere neutral feel-
ing, but implies a sterling virtue. Equanimity, mental
equilibrium, are its closest equivalents. Upekkha
embraces the good and the bad, the loved and the
unloved, the pleasant and the unpleasant.
See Chapter 2, note 49.
12.Ahare patikkulasanna—i.e., the feeling of loath-
someness of food, in its search, eating etc.
13.Catudhatuvavatthanaü—i.e., the investigation of the
four primary elements of extension, cohesion, heat,
and motion with regard to their characteristics etc.
14. Arupajhanas—See Ch. 1. They are: (i) ‘The Realm of
the Infinity of Space.’ (ii) ‘The Realm of the Infinity
of Consciousness, (iii) ‘The Realm of Nothingness’
and (iv) The ‘Realm of neither Perception nor Non-

15. Thirty-eight objects when ‘light’ and ‘space’ are
16. Because they tend to create a disgust for the body
which fascinates the senses.
17. Because the objects are too deep and vast.
18. These objects are too coarse, and vitakka, one of the
constituents of jhana, is an indispensable aid to prac-
tise concentration on them. As there is no vitakka in
the remaining four Jhanas, they cannot be developed
by concentrating on these two objects.
19. As equanimity (upekkha) is found only in the fifth
jhana, the first four jhanas cannot be developed by
concentrating on this last ‘Illimitable.’
20.Vatthudhammato—i.e., from the defects found in
the original kasinamanóala.
21.âvajjana—reflection on the different constituents of
Samapajjana—the ability to attain to different
jhanas quickly.
Adhitthana—the ability to remain in the jhanas
as long as one likes.
Vutthana—the ability to emerge from the jhanas
as quickly as possible.
Paccavekkhana is similar to avajjana.

22. See Ch. 1, p. 92.
23.Abhinna—Only one who has gained the fifth jhana
can develop the following five kinds of supernormal
knowledge or vision:—
i.Iddhividha—Flying through the air, walking on
water, diving into the earth, creation of forms,
etc. belong to this category.
ii.Dibbasota is the Celestial Ear, also called clair-
audience, which enables one to hear subtle or
coarse sounds far or near.
iii.Paracittavijanana—is the power to discern the
thoughts of others.
iv.Pubbenivasanussati—is the power to remem-
ber the past lives of oneself and others. This is the
first supernormal vision the Buddha developed
during the first watch on the night He attained
Enlightenment. With regard to this knowledge
the Buddha’s power is limitless, while in the case
of others it is limited.
v.Dibbacakkhu is the Celestial or Divine Eye, also
called clairvoyance, which enables one to see
heavenly or earthly things, far or near, which
are imperceptible to the physical eye. This was
the second knowledge the Buddha developed
during the second watch on the night of His

Cutupapatanana, knowledge with regard to the
dying and reappearing of beings, is identical with this
Celestial Eye. Anagataüsanana, knowledge with re-
gard to the future, and yathakammupaganana, know-
ledge with regard to the faring of beings according to
their own good and bad actions, are two other kinds
of knowledge belonging to the same category. These
come within the range of the Buddha’s Omniscience.
These five kinds of supernormal vision are
worldly. To these should be added the sixth super-
normal knowledge—âsavakkhayanana—Knowledge
with regard to the extinction of passions which is
The first five kinds may be developed at any
period; but the last, only during a Buddha-cycle.

Abhidhammattha Sangaha - Compendium of Subjects for Mental Culture

Abhidhammattha Sangaha ( A Manual of Abhidhamma )

Translated by Narada Maha Thera
Published By the Buddhist Missionary Society

Chapter IX
Samathavipassananam bhavananam’ito param
Kammatthanam pavakkhami duvidham pi yathak-
§2.Tattha samathasangahe tava dasakasinani, dasa
asubha, dasa anussatiyo, catasso appamannayo, eka
sanna, ekam vavatthanam, cattaro aruppa c’ati sattavidh-
ena samathakammatthanasangaho.
Ragacarita, dosacarita, mohacarita, saddhacarita,
vitakkacarita, c’ati chabbidhena caritasangaho.
Parikammabhavana, upacarabhavana, appanabhava-
na c’ati tisso bhavana.
Parikammanimittam, uggahanimittam, patibhagani-
mittam c’ati tini nimittani ca veditabbani.
Pathavikasinam, apokasinam, tejokasinam, vayoka-
sinam, nilakasinam, pitakasinam, lohitakasinam, odataka-
sinam akasakasinam, alokakasinam c’ati imani dasa
kasinani nama.
Uddhumatakam, vinilakam, vipubbakam, vicchid-
dakam, vikkhayitakam, vikkhittakam, hatavikkhittakam,
lohitakam, puëavakam, atthikam c’ati ime dasa asubha

Buddhanussati, Dhammanussati, Sanghanussati,
Silanussati, Caganussati, Devatanussati, Upasamanussati,
Marananussati, Kayagatasati, ânapanasati c’ati ima dasa
anussatiyo nama.
Metta, Karuna, Mudita, Upekkha c’ati ima
catasso appamannayo nama, Brahmaviharo’ti pavuccati.
âhare patikkålasanna eka sanna nama.
Catudhatuvavatthanam ekam vavatthanam nama.
âkasanancayatanadayo cattaro aruppa nama’ti sabba-
tha pi samathaniddese cattaëisa kammatthanani bhavanti.
§3.Caritasu pana dasa asubha kayagatasati sankhata
kotthasabhavana ca ragacaritassa sappaya.
Catasso appamannayo niladini ca cattari kasinani
ânapanam mohacaritassa vitakkacaritassa ca.
Buddhanussati adayo cha saddhacaritassa.
Maranopasamasannavavatthanani buddhicaritassa.
Sesani pana sabbani pi kammatthanani sabbesam
pi sappayani.
Tattha’ pi kasinesu puthulam mohacaritassa, khud
dakam vitakkacaritassa ca.
Ayam’ettha sappayabhedo.

§4.Bhavanasu pana sabbattha ’pi parikammabhavana
Buddhanussati adisu atthasu sannavavatthanesu c’ati
dasasu kammatthanesu upacara bhavana’va sampajjati,
natthi appana.
Sesesu pana samatimskammatthanesu appana
bhavana’ pi sampajjati.
Tattha’ pi dasa kasinani anapanan ca pancakajjhani-
Dasa asubha kayagatasati ca pathamajjhanika.
Mettadayo tayo catukkajjhanika.
Upekkha pancamajjhanika.
Iti chabbisati råpavacarajjhanikani kammatthanani.
Cattaro pana aruppa aråpajjhanika.
Ayam’ettha bhavanabhedo.
§5.Nimittesu pana parikammanimittam uggahani-
mittam ca sabbattha’pi yatharaham pariyayena labbhant’
eva. Patibhaganimittam pana kasinasubhakotthasanapanes’
veva labbhati. Tattha hi patibhaganimittam’arabbha
upacarasamadhi appanasamadhi ca pavattanti. Katham?
âdikammikassa hi pathavimandaladisu nimittam’
ugganhantassa tam’ alambanam parikammanimittanti
pavuccati. Sa ca bhavana parikammabhavana nama.

Yada pana tam nimittam cittena samuggahitam hoti,
cakkhuna passantass’eva manodvarassa apathamagatam’
tada tam’ evalambanam uggahanimittam nama. Sa ca
bhavana samadhiyati.
Tatha samahitassa pana tassa tato param tasmim
uggahanimitte parikammasamadhina bhavanamanuyun-
jantassa yada tappatibhagam vatthudhammavimuccitam
pannattisankhatam bhavanamayam’ alambanam citte
sannisinnam samappitam hoti. Tada tam patibhaganimit-
tam samuppannanti pavuccati. Tato patthaya paribandha
vippahana kamavacarasamadhisankhata upacarabhavana
nipphanna nama hoti. Tato param tam’ eva patibhagani-
mittam upacara samadhina samasevantassa råpavacarapa-
thamajjhanam’ appeti. Tato param tam’ eva pathamaj-
jhanam avajjanam, samapajjanam, adhitthanam, vuttha-
nam, paccavekkhana c’ati imahi pancahi vasitahi vasi-
bhåtam katva vitakkadikam’ oëarikangam pahanaya
vicaradi sukhumanguppattiya padahanto yathakkamam
dutiyajjhanadayo yatharaham’ appeti.
Icc’evam pathavikasinadisu dvavisatikammatthanesu
patibhaganimittam’upalabbhati. Avasesu pana appamanna
sattapannattiyam pavattanti.
âkasavajjitakasinesu pana yam kinci kasinam uggha-
tetva laddhamakasam anantavasena parikammam karon-
tassa pathamaruppam’ appeti. Tam’eva pathamaruppa-
vinnanam anantavasena parikammam karontassa
dutiyaruppam’appeti. Tam’eva pathamaruppavinnana-
bhavam pana natthi kinci’ti parikammam karontassa

tatiyaruppam’appeti. Tatiyaruppam santam’etam panitam’
etanti parikammam karontassa catuttharuppam’ appeti.
Avasesesu ca dasasu kammatthanesu Buddhaguna-
dikamalambanam’ arabbha parikammam katva tasmim
nimitte sadhukam’ uggahite tatth’eva parikamman ca
samadhiyati, upacaro ca sampajjati.
Abhinnavasena pavattamanam pana råpavacarapan-
camajjhanam abhinnapadaka pancamajjhana vutthahitva
adhittheyyadikam’avajjitva parikammam karontassa
råpadist alambanesu yatharaham’ appeti.
Abhinna ca nama:—
lddhividham dibbasotam paracittavijanana
Pubb: nivasanussati dibbacakkhå’ti pancadha.
Ayam’ ettha gocarabhedo.
Nitthito ca samathakammatthananayo
Chapter 9
Compendium of Subjects for Mental Culture (1)
§1.Hereafter I will explain the twofold subjects of men-
tal culture which deals with Calm (2) and Insight (3).
§2.Of the two, in the Compendium of Calm, to begin
with, the objects of mental culture are sevenfold:—1. the

ten Kasinas, 2. the ten Impurities, 3. the ten Reflections,
4.the four Illimitables, 5. the one Perception 6. the one
Analysis, 7. the four Aråpa-Jhanas.
The six kinds of temperaments (4):—1. the lustful,
2.the hateful. 3. the unintelligent, or ignorant, 4. the de-
vout, or faithful, 5. the intellectual, or wise, 6. the discursive.
The three stages of Mental Culture:—1. the prelimin-
ary (5), 2. the proximate, 3. the concentrative.
The three signs (6):—1. the preliminary, 2. the
abstract, 3. the conceptualised.
A.The ten kasinas (7) are:—earth, water, fire, air,
blue, yellow, red, white, space, and light.
B.The ten Impurities (8) are:—a bloated (corpse)
a discoloured (corpse), a festering (corpse), a disjoint
corpse, an eaten (corpse), a mangled (corpse), a worm-
infested (corpse) and a skeleton.
C.The ten Reflections (9) are:—1. The Reflection
on the Buddha, 2. The Reflection on the Doctrine, 3. The
Reflection on the Order, 4. The Reflection on morality,
5.The Reflection on generosity, 6. The Reflection on
deities, 7. The Reflection on peace, 8. The Reflection on
death, 9. Mindfulness regarding breathing. (10)
D.The four Illimitables, also called Sublime
States, (II), are:— loving-kindness, compassion, apprecia-
tive joy, and equanimity.
E.The one Perception is the feeling of loathsome-
ness about food (12).

F.The one Analysis is the analysis of the four ele-
ments (13).
G.The four Aråpa-Jhanas are the ‘Infinity of space’
(14) and so forth. In the exposition of ‘Calm’ there are alto-
gether forty (15) subjects of meditation.
Suitability of Subjects for different Temperaments
§3.With respect to temperaments the ten ‘Impurities’
and ‘Mindfulness regarding the body’ such as the 32 parts
are suitable for those of a lustful temperament (16).
The four ‘Illimitables’ and the four coloured Kasinas
are suitable for those of a hateful temperament. (17).
The reflection on ‘breathing’ is suitable for those of
an unintelligent and discursive temperament.
The six reflections on the Buddha and so forth are
suitable for those of a devout temperament; reflection on
‘death’, ‘peace’, ‘perception’, and ‘analysis’, for those of an
intellectual temperament; and all the remaining subjects
of mental culture, for all.
Of the kasinas a wide one is suitable for the unintel-
ligent, and a small one for the discursive.
Herein this is the section on suitability.
Stages of Mental Culture
§4.The preliminary stage of mental culture is attainable
in all these forty subjects of meditation. In the ten subjects

of mental culture such as the eight Reflections on the
Buddha and so forth and the one ‘Perception’, and the one
‘Analysis’ (18) only proximate mental culture is attained
but not the concentrative stage. In the thirty remaining
subjects of mental culture the concentrative stage of men-
tal culture is also attained.
Therein the ten kasinas and the ‘Breathing’ produce
five Jhanas; the ten ‘Impurities’ and ‘Mindfulness regard-
ing the body’ only the first Jhana; the first three ‘Illimit-
ables’ such as loving-kindness, four Jhanas; ‘equanimity’
(19) the fifth Jhana.
Thus these twenty-six subjects of mental culture pro-
duce Råpa-Jhanas.
The four ‘formless’ objects produce the Aråpa-Jhanas.
This is the section on mental culture.
Signs of Mental Culture
§5.Of the three signs, the preliminary sign and the
abstract sign are generally obtained in every case according
to the object. But the conceptualised image is obtained in
‘the ‘Kasinas’, ‘Impurities’, ‘Parts of the body’, and ‘Breathing’.
It is by means of the conceptualised image the proxi-
mate one-pointedness and the ecstatic one-pointedness
are developed.
How ?
Whatever object, amongst the earth kasinas and so

forth, a beginner takes to practise meditation, is called a
preliminary sign, and that meditation is preliminary men-
tal culture. When that sign is perceived by the mind and
enters the mind-door as if seen by the very (physical) eye,
then it is called the abstract sign. That meditation becomes
well established.
Likewise, when a counter-image born of meditation,
freed from original defects (20), reckoned as a concept, is
well established and fixed in the mind of one who is well
composed and who, thereafter, practises meditation on
the abstract sign by means of preliminary concentration,
then it is said that the conceptualised image has arisen.
Råpa Jhanas
Thereafter ‘proximate concentration’, free from obstacles,
pertaining to the Kama-sphere, arises. Then he who devel-
ops the conceptualised image by means of ‘proximate con-
centration’ attains to the first Jhana of the Råpa-sphere.
Thenceforth by bringing that very first jhana under
one’s sway by means of these five kinds of mastery (21)—
namely, reflection, attainment, resolution, emergence,
and revision—the striving person, by inhibiting the coarse
factors like ‘initial application’ and so forth, and by devel-
oping the subtle factors like ‘sustained application’ and so
forth attains, by degrees, according to circumstances, to
the second jhana and so forth.
Thus with respect to twenty-two subjects of mental

culture such as the earth kasina etc. the conceptualised
image is obtained. But in the remaining (eighteen) sub-
jects of mental culture the ‘Illimitables’ relate to the con-
cept of beings.
Aråpa Jhanas (22)
Now, to one who practises concentration on space
abstracted from any kasina excluding the akasa kasina,
thinking—‘this is infinite’—there arises the first Aråpa
Jhana. To one who practises concentration on that very
first Aråpa Jhana, thinking that ‘it is infinite’, there arises
the second Aråpa Jhana. To one who practises concentra-
tion on the non-existence of the first Aråpa-consciousness,
thinking ‘there is naught whatever’—there arises the third
Aråpa Jhana. To him who practises concentration on the
third Aråpa-consciousness, thinking—it is calm, it is sub-
lime’, there arises the fourth Aråpa Jhana.
In the remaining ten subjects of mental culture when
concentration is practised on an object like the attributes
of the Buddha and so forth and when the sign is well
grasped ‘preliminary meditation’ becomes steadfast there-
in and ‘proximate meditation’ is also accomplished.
Supernormal Knowledge (23)
Emerging from the fifth jhana (serving as a) basis for
supernormal knowledge, and reflecting on the ‘resolution’
and so forth, when one practises concentration on physical

objects etc., there arises according to circumstances, the
fifth Råpa-Jhana induced in the way of developing super-
normal knowledge.
The five kinds of supernormal knowledge are:—
Various Psychic Powers, Celestial Ear, Discerning others’
thoughts, Reminiscence of past births, and Celestial Eye.
Herein this is the section on mental culture.
The method of meditation of Calm is ended.

Abhidhammattha Sangaha - Pannatti

Abhidhammattha Sangaha ( A Manual of Abhidhamma )

Translated by Narada Maha Thera
Published By the Buddhist Missionary Society

§4.Tattha rupadhamma rupakkhandho ca cittacetasika-
saïkhata cattaro arupino khandha nibbananc’ ati panca-
vidham pi arupanti ca naman’ ti ca pavuccati.

Tato avasesa pannatti pana pannapiyatta pannatti,
pannapanato pannatti’ti ca duvidha hoti.
Katham? Tam tam bhutaparinamakaram’ upadaya
tatha tatha pannatta bhumipabbatadika, sasambhara-
sannivesakaram’ upadaya geharathasakatadika, khan-
dhapancakam’ upadaya purisapuggaladika, candavattan-
adikam’ upadaya disakaladika, asamphutthakaram’
upadaya kupaguhadika, tam tam bhutanimittam bhavana-
visesan ca upadaya kasinanimittadika ca’ti ev’madippa-
bheda pana paramatthato avijjamana ’pi atthacchaya-
karena cittuppadanamalambanabhuta tam tam upadaya
upanidhaya karanam katva tatha tatha parikappiyamana
saïkhayati, samannayati, vohariyati, pannapiyati’ ti
pannatti’ti pavuccati. Ayam pannatti pannapiyatta
pannatti nama.
Pannapanato pannatti pana nama namakammadi-
namena paridipita.
Sa vijjamanapannatti, avijjamanapannatti, vijjamanena
avijjamana pannatti, avijjamanena vijjamanapannatti,
vijjamanena vijjamanapannatti, avijjamanena avijjamana-
pannatti, c’ati chabbidha hoti.
Tattha yada pana paramatthato vijjamanam rupave-
danadim etaya pannapenti tad’ayam vijjamanapannatti.
Yada pana paramatthato avijjamanam bhumipabbatadim
etaya pannapenti, tad’ayam avijjamanapannattiti pavuccati.
Ubhinnam pana vomissakavasena sesa yathakkamam
chalabhinno itthisaddo cakkhuvinnanam rajaputto’ti ca

Vacighosanusarena sotavinnanavithiya
Pavattanantaruppanna manodvarassa gocara.
Attha yassanusarena vinnayanti tato param
Sayam pannatti vinneyya lokasaïketanimmita’ti.
Iti Abhidhammatthasaïgahe Paccayasaïgahavibhago
nama atthamo paricchedo.
Section 4
§4.Therein the material states are just the aggregates of
Consciousness and mental states, which comprise the
four immaterial aggregates, and Nibbana are the five kinds
of the immaterial. They are also called ‘name’ (Nama).
The remainder Pannatti (39), is twofold, insamuch
as it is made known, or as it makes known.
There are such terms as ‘land’, ‘mountain’ and the
like, so designated on account of the mode of transition of
the respective elements; such terms as ‘house’, ‘chariot’,
‘cart’ and the like, so named on account of the mode of for-
mation of materials; such terms as ‘person’ ‘individual’ and
the like, so named on account of the five aggregates; such
terms as ‘direction’, ‘time,’ and the like, named according
to the revolution of the moon and so forth; such terms as

‘well’, ‘cave’ and the like, so named on account of the mode
of non-impact and so forth; such terms as Kasina-objects
and the like, so named on account of respective elements
and different mental culture.
All such different things, though they do not exist in
an ultimate sense, become objects of thought in the form
of shadows of (ultimate) things.
They are called ‘pannatti’ because they are thought of,
reckoned, understood, expressed, and made known on account
of, in consideration of, with respect to, this or that mode.
This ‘Pannatti’ is so called because it is made known.
As it makes known it is called ‘pannatti’. It is de-
scribed as ‘name’, ‘name-made’, etc.
It is sixfold (40):—
1. A real concept, 2. an unreal concept, 3. an unreal
concept by means of real concept, 4. a real concept by
means of an unreal concept, 5. a real concept by means of
a real concept, 6. an unreal concept by means of an unreal
As, for instance, when they make known by a term,
such as ‘matter’, ‘feeling’, and so forth that exist in reality,
it is called a ‘real concept’.
When they make known by a term, such as ‘land’,
‘mountain’ and so forth that do not exist in reality, it is
called an ‘unreal concept.’
The rest should respectively be understood by com-
bining both as, for instance, ‘possessor of sixfold supernor-
mal vision’, ‘woman’s voice’, ‘visual cognition’, ‘king’s son’.

By following the sound of speech through the process of
auditory consciousness and then by means of the concept
conceived by mind-door that subsequently arises, are
meanings understood.
These concepts should be understood as fashioned
by world-convention.
This is the eighth chapter which deals with the
Analysis of Causal Relations in the Compendium of
39.Pannatti—There are two kinds of Pannatti or con-
cepts—namely, atthapannatti and namapannatti.
The former is made known, that is, the object con-
veyed by the concept. The latter is that which
makes known, that is, the name given to the
Land, mountain, etc. are called ‘santhana-
pannatti,’ formal concepts, since they correspond to
the form of things.
Chariot, village, etc., are called ‘samuha-pannatti’,
collective concepts, since they correspond to a collec-
tion or group of things.

East, West, etc. are called ‘disa-pannatti’, local
concepts, since they correspond to locality.
Morning, noon, etc. are called ‘kala-pannatti’,
time concepts, since they correspond to time.
Well, cave etc. are called ‘akasa-pannatti’, space-
concepts, since they correspond to open space.
Visualized image, conceptualised image, etc. are
called ‘nimitta-pannatti’, since they correspond to
mental signs gained by mental development.
40.Six kinds of Pannatti—
1.Matter, feeling, etc. exist in an ultimate sense.
2.Land, mountain, etc. are terms given to things
that do not exist in an ultimate sense.
3.‘Possessor of sixfold supernormal vision’.
Here the former does not exist in an ultimate
sense, but the latter does.
4.Woman’s voice. Here the voice exists in an ulti-
mate sense, but not the woman.
5.Eye-consciousness. Here the sensitive eye exists
in an ultimate sense, and so does the conscious-
ness dependent on it.
6.King’s son. Here neither the son nor the king
exists in an ultimate sense.

Abhidhammattha Sangaha - The Law of Causal Relations

Abhidhammattha Sangaha ( A Manual of Abhidhamma )

Translated by Narada Maha Thera
Published By the Buddhist Missionary Society

§3.(1) Hetupaccayo, (2) arammanapaccayo, (3)adhipati-
paccayo, (4) anantarapaccayo, (5)samanantarapaccayo,
(6)sahajatapaccayo, (7)annamannapaccayo, (8) nissaya-
paccayo, (9) upanissayapaccayo, (10) purejatapaccayo,
(11)pacchajatapaccayo, (12) asevanapaccayo, (13)kamma-
paccayo, (14)vipakapaccayo, (15) aharapaccayo, (16)in-
driyapaccayo, (17) jhanapaccayo, (18) maggapaccayo,
(19)sampayuttapaccayo, (20) vippayuttapaccayo, (21)atthi-
paccayo, (22) natthipaccayo, (23) vigatapaccayo, (24)avigata-
paccayo’ti ayam’ettha patthananayo.
i.Chadha namantu namassa pancadha
Ekadha puna rupassa rupam namassa c’ekadha,
ii.Pannattinamarupani namassa duvidha dvayam
Dvayassa navadha c’ati chabbidha paccaya
A.Anantaraniruddha cittacetasika dhamma paccup-
pannanam citta cetasikanam anantara samanantaranatthi-
vigatavasena; purimani javanani pacchimanam javananam

asevanavasena; sahajata cittacetasika dhamma annamannam
sampayuttavasena’ti chadha namam namassa paccayo hoti.
B.Hetujhanaïgamaggaïgani sahajatanam namaru-
panam hetadivasena; sahajata cetana sahajatanam nama-
rupanam; nanakkhanika cetana kammabhinibbattanam
namarupanam kammavasena; vipakakkhandha annaman-
nam saha jatanam rupanam vipakavasen’ati ca pancadha
namam namarupanam paccayo hoti.
C.Pacchajata cittacetasika dhamma purejatassa
imassa kayassa pacchajatavasen’ati ekadha va namam
rupassa paccayo hoti.
D.Chavatthuni pavattiyam sattannam vinnanadha-
tunam; pancalambanani ca pancavinnanavithiya pureja-
tavasen’ati ekadha va rupam namassa paccayo hoti.
E.ârammanavasena upanissyavasena’ti ca duvidha
pannattinamarupani namass’ eva paccaya honti.
Tattha rupadivasena chabbidham hoti arammanam.
Upanissayo pana tividho hoti—arammanupanissayo,
anantarupanissayo, pakatupanissayo c’ati. Tatth’a-
lambanam’ eva garukatam arammanupanissayo. Anantara-
niruddha cittacetasika dhamma anantarupanissayo. Raga-
dayo pana dhamma saddhadayo ca sukham dukkham
puggalo bhojanam utu senasanan ca yatharaham
ajjhattam ca bahiddha ca kusaladidhammanam kammam
vipakanti ca bahudha hoti pakatupanissayo.

F.Adhipati, sahajata, annamanna, nissaya, ahara,
indriya, vippayutta, atthi, avigatavasena’ti yatharaham
navadha namarupani namarupanam paccaya bhavanti.
Tattha garukatam’alambanam alambanadhipativa-
sena namanam sahajadhipati catubbidho’pi sahajatavasena
sahajatanam namarupananti ca duvidho hoti adhipatipa-
Cittacetasika dhamma annamannam sahajatarupanan
ca, mahabhuta annamannam upadarupanan ca,
patisandhikkhane vatthuvipaka annamannanti ca tividho
hoti sahajatapaccayo.
Cittacetasika dhamma annamannam, mahabhuta
annamannam patisandhikkhane vatthuvipaka annam-
annanti ca tividho hoti annamannapaccayo.
Cittacetasika dhamma annamannam sahajatarupanan
ca mahabhuta annamannam upadarupanan ca, chavatthuni
sattannam vinnanadhatunanti ca tividho hoti nissaya-
Kabaëikaro aharo imassa kayassa, arupino ahara
sahajatanam namarupanan’ti ca duvidho hoti aharapaccayo.
Pancappasada pancannam vinnananam, rupajivitin-
driyam upadinnarupanam, arupino indriya sahajatanam
namarupananti ca tividho hoti indriyapaccayo.
Okkantikkhane vatthuvipakanam, cittacetasika dham-
ma sahajatarupanam sahajatavasena, pacchajata cittace-
tasika dhamma purejatassa imassa kayassa pacchajatava-
sena, cha vatthuni pavattiyam sattannam vinnanadha-
tunam purejatavasena’ti ca tividho hoti vippayuttapaccayo.

Sahajatam purejatam pacchajatam ca sabbatha
Kabaëikaro aharo rupajivitamiccayanti.
Pancavidho hoti atthipaccayo avigatapaccayo.
ârammanupanissayakamma atthipaccayesu ca sabbe’pi
paccaya samodhanam gacchanti.
Sahajatarupanti pan’ettha sabbattha’pi pavatte
cittasamutthananam patisandhiyam katattarupanan ca
vasena duvidho hoti veditabbam.
Iti tekalika dhamma kalamutta ca sambhava
Ajjhattan ca bahiddha ca saïkhatasaïkhata tatha
Pannattinamarupanam vasena tividha thita
Paccaya nama patthane catuvisati sabbatha’ti.
§3.The Law of Causal Relations
The following are the causal relations:—
1. Root (18) . .. .. .. condition
2. Object (19). .. .. .. "
3. Predominance (20). .. .. .. "
4. Contiguity (21). .. .. .. "
5. Immediacy (21). .. .. .. "
6. Co-nascence (22). .. .. .. "
7. Mutuality (or Reciprocity) (23) . .. "
8. Dependence (24). .. .. .. "
9. Powerful Dependence (or Sufficing) (24) "

10. Pre-nascence (or Antecedence) (25). condition
11. Post-nascence (or Post Occurrence) (26) "
12. Repetition (or Habitual Recurrence) (27) "
13. Kamma (28). .. .. .. "
14. Effect (29). .. .. .. "
15. Nutriment (30). .. .. .. "
16. Control (31). .. .. .. "
17. Jhana (32). .. .. .. "
18. Path (33). .. .. .. "
19. Association (34). .. .. .. "
20. Dissociation (35). .. .. .. "
21. Presence (36). .. .. .. "
22. Absence (37). .. .. .. "
23. Separation (38). .. .. .. "
24. Non-separation (38). .. .. .. "
Herein this is the law of causal relations.
Section 2
The Law of Causal Relations
In six ways mind is related to mind. In five ways mind is
related to mind and matter. Again mind is related in one
way to matter, and matter in one way to mind. In two ways
concepts, mind and matter are related to mind. In nine
ways are the two-mind and matter-related to mind and
matter. Thus the relations are sixfold.

Relations of Mind and Matter
A.In six ways mind is related to mind:—
Consciousness and mental states that immediately
cease, relate themselves to present consciousness and
mental states by way of contiguity, immediacy, absence, and
Preceding Javanas are related to the subsequent
Javanas by way of repetition (or habitual recurrence).
Coexisting consciousness and mental states are
related to one another by way of association.
B.In five ways mind is related to mind and matter:—
Root, Jhana and Path factors are related to coexisting
mind and matter by way of root etc.
Coexisting volition is related to coexisting mind and
matter and asynchronous volition to mind and matter born
of kamma by way of kamma.
The (mental) aggregates of effect are related to one
another and coexistent matter by way of effect.
C.Only in one way is mind related to matter:—
Subsequent consciousness and mental states are
related to this preceding (material) body by way of post-
D.Only in one way is matter related to mind:—
The six bases during life are related to the seven ele-

ments of cognition, and the five objects to the five pro-
cesses of sense-cognition by way of antecedence.
E.In two ways are concepts, mind and matter related to
mind—namely, by way of object and powerful dependence.
Therein object is sixfold as form etc. But powerful
dependence is threefold—namely, powerful dependence as
object, powerful dependence as contiguity, and powerful
dependence as intrinsic nature.
Of them the object itself when it becomes prominent
serves as a powerful dependence. Consciousness and mental
states that immediately cease act as the powerful depend-
ence of proximity. The powerful dependence of intrinsic
nature is of several kinds:—states of lust etc. states of con-
fidence etc., pleasure, pain, individual, food, season, lodg-
ing—conditions, internal and external, as the case may be,
are related to moral states etc. Kamma, too, is similarly
related to its effects.
F.Mind and matter are related to mind and matter in
nine ways according to circumstances—namely, by way of
predominance, co-nascence, reciprocity, dependence, nutri-
ment, control, dissociation, presence, and non-separation.
Therein relation of predominance is twofold:—
i.The object to which weight is attached is re-
lated to states of mind by way of objective predominance.
ii.The fourfold coexisting predominance is related
to coexisting mind and matter by way of co-nascence.
The relation of co-nascence is threefold:—conscious-

ness and mental states are related to one another and to
the coexisting material states; the four Great Essentials,
mutually to the derived material qualities; bases and the
resultant consciousness, at the moment of rebirth, to one
The relation of reciprocity is threefold:—conscious-
ness and mental states are related to one another; the four
Great Essentials, to one another; bases and the resultant
consciousness at the moment of rebirth, to one another.
The relation of dependence is threefold:—conscious-
ness and mental states are related to one another and
coexisting matter; the four chief elements, to one another
and derived material qualities; and six bases, to the seven
cognitive elements.
The relation of nutriment is twofold:—edible food is
related to this body; and immaterial nutriment, to the
coexisting mind and matter.
The relation of control is threefold:—the five sensi-
tive organs are related to the five kinds of cognition; the
controlling power of material vitality, to the material qual-
ities that have been grasped at; the immaterial controlling
factors, to the coexistent mind and matter.
The law of dissociation is threefold:—at the moment
of conception the basis of mind is related to the effects (of
kamma), and consciousness and mental states, to coexist-
ent mind and matter by way of coexistence;, the subsequent
consciousness and mental states, to this antecedent body
by way of post-occurrence; the six bases, in the course of

life, to the seven cognitive elements by way of antecedence.
The five kinds of relations—coexistence, antecedence,
post-occurrence, edible food, and material life—are, in every
way, the relation of presence and that of non-separation.
All relations are included in the relations of object,
powerful dependence, Kamma and presence.
Herein coexisting material qualities should be under-
stood as twofold:—throughout the course of life they
should be understood as those born of mind, and at rebirth
as those born of kamma.
Thus the relative conditions pertaining to the three periods
of time and timeless, internal and external, conditioned
and non-conditioned, are threefold by way of concept,
mind and matter.
In all the relations in Patthana are twenty-four.
Section 3
18.Hetu-paccaya—Here paccaya presents some diffi-
culty. It is defined as that by means of which an effect
comes to be. In other words it is the cause. Further-
more, it is explained as a ‘serviceable or supportive
factor’ (upakarako dhammo). Hetu is defined as ‘that
by which an effect is established.’ It is used in the sense
of ‘root’ (mulatthena). Like the roots of a tree are hetu;

like water and manure that aid its growth are paccaya.
In the Abhidhamma these two cognate terms are used
in two different senses. In the Suttas, however, they
are invariably employed as synoymous terms, without
any distinction, as, for example, ko hetu, ko paccayo—
what is the reason? what is the cause?
In the Patthana 24 such paccayas are enumerat-
ed, and hetu is one of them. Hetupaccaya is ex-
plained as ‘hetu itself is a paccaya’ or ‘as hetu it be-
comes a paccaya.’ It is interpreted as a supportive or
serviceable factor in the sense of root (mulattthena
upakarako dhammo). The causal relation by way of
‘root’ may be suggested as the closest rendering. (See
Compendium, p. 279; Journal of the Pali Text Society,
1915–1916, pp. 29–53.
‘Roots’ are purely mental. They are the six moral
and immoral roots. See Chapter 1.
19.ârammana—or âlambana—The former is derived
from a +
√ ram, to delight in; the latter from a +
√ lamb, to hang upon. Things on which the sub-
ject delights in or hangs upon are ‘objects’. There are
six classes of objects. A form, for instance, acts as a
causal relation to visual-consciousness by way of an
‘object’. It should be stated that there is nothing mun-
dane or supramundane that does not become an
object for mind.
20.Adhipati—Lit., mastery or lordship over one’s own.

One of the four dominant factors—-namely, wish,
thought, effort and reasoning—may, at one time,
causally relate itself to coexistent mental states and
material phenomena by way of predominance.
“Whenever such phenomena as consciousness
and mental states arise by giving predominance to
one of these four factors, then this phenomenon is to
the other phenomenon a condition by way of pre-
dominance.” (Patthana).
21.Anantara and Samanantara—In meaning there is
no difference between the two terms. They differ
only in etymology. According to Buddhist philosophy
one thought-moment perishes immediately giving
birth to another. The succeeding thought-moment
inherits all the potentialities of its immediate prede-
cessor. The perishing preceding states causally relate
themselves to immediately following states by way of
contiguity and immediacy.
22. Sahajata—The causal relation by way of co-nascence,
as, for instance, the four mental aggregates, the differ-
ent mental states that simultaneously arise in a partic-
ular type of consciousness, the four Great Essentials
that arise together, the appearance of the three ‘dec-
ads’ at the moment of conception, etc. In the Paticca-
samuppada it may be mentioned that both contact
and feeling which appear as causes and effect are co-

A mental state may be co-nascent with a mental
state, a mental with a physical, a physical with a
physical, and a physical with a mental.
23.Annamanna—Just as the legs of a tripod are recipro-
cally helpful, even so mental or physical state or
states may be causally related by way of reciprocity
(or mutuality). Causal relations of co-nascence and
reciprocity should be differentiated. They are not
identical. For instance, mind-born material phenom-
ena are not reciprocally related to the coexisting
mind, nor are the material derivatives to the coexist-
ing Great Essentials. As a rule, mind and matter are
reciprocally related.
24.Nissaya and Upanissaya—derived from upa + ni +
√ si, to lie. Upa is an intensive prefix. As trees
depend on the ground for their support, and as pic-
tures depend on a canvas on which they are painted,
so is the causal relation of dependence. Upanissaya is
defined as a stronger species of Nissaya. It is com-
pared to the rains on which depend the growth of
trees. S. Z. Aung renders upasnissaya by ‘sufficing
condition’. For instance, one of the five heinous
crimes such as matricide, parricide and so on will
serve as an upanissaya to effect a birth in a woeful
state. Good environments, early education, etc. will
serve as a causal relation by way of ‘dependence’
(nissaya) for the acquisition of health, wealth and

knowledge in later life. Just as good actions become
upanissaya for future good deeds, even so they may
become upanissaya for evil too as, for instance, spir-
itual pride. See Ledi Sayadaw’s learned article on this
subject in P. T. S. Journal, 1916, pp. 49–53.
25.Purejata—lit., born before or that which pre-exists.
The six physical bases and six sensual objects are
regarded as pre-existent. The pre-existent things are
regarded as causal relations only when they continue
to exist in the present and not by mere antecedence.
Priority is not a good rendering.
26.Pacehajata—Of the 89 types of consciousness,
85types, excluding the four Arupa resultants, and
the 52 mental states are causally related to the ante-
cedent physical body by way of post-occurrence.
27.âsevana—Repeated practice, as a rule, leads to pro-
ficiency. This applies to both good and evil things. By
repetition one acquires a certain amount of skill in
any particular thing. âsevana denotes this repeated
practice. In javana process the second thought-
moment is causally related to the first, the third to
the second, the fourth to the third, by way of recur-
rence. This is the reason why the fourth javana
thought-moment is considered very powerful.
28.Kamma means the volition that plays the most
important part in moral and immoral thoughts,

words, and deeds. This volition, technically known as
Kamma, is causally related to the Kamma-born mate-
rial phenomena etc. As a seed to a tree so is Kamma
causally related to its inevitable results.
29.Vipaka—Like a cool breeze that pacifies a person
seated under the cool shade of a tree, even so mental
states of resultant types of consciousness are causally
related to coexistent mental states and material phe-
nomena by way of ‘effect’ due to their effortless
peaceful nature.
30.âhara—Just as material food sustains the physical
body, even so mental foods sustain mental states.
Edible food is causally related to the body by way of
nutriment or food; so are mental contacts or impres-
sions (phassa) to feelings, volitions or moral
andimmoral actions (manosancetana) to rebirth-
consciousness (patisandhi vinnana), and rebirth-
consciousness (vinnana) to mind and matter.
31.Indriya—The controlling factors enumerated in
chapter VII become causally related to the coexistent
mental states and material phenomena because they
exercise control in their respective spheres. For
instance, confidence controls its co-adjuncts in reli-
gious convictions; psychic and physical life, in vivify-
ing mind and matter; mindfulness, in contemplative
exercise; feelings, in grief and happiness, etc.

32.Jhana—The seven jhana factors of (1) initial applica-
tion, (2), sustained application, (3) rapture, (4) happi-
ness, (5) equanimity, (6) displeasure and (7) one-
pointedness are causally related to one another and
other concomitants by way of close perception and con-
templation. For instance, the initial application (vitakka)
is causally related to its concomitants in directing them
towards the desired object. See Chapter 1.
1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in two classes of conscious-
ness rooted in attachment; 1, 2, 6, 7, in hateful con-
sciousness; 1, 2, 5, 7, in deluded consciousness.
33.Magga—means a way or road. One way leads to woe-
ful states; the other, to states of bliss. The vehicles
that convey travellers to the former are the evil ‘Path-
Constituents’ of wrong views, wrong application,
wrong effort, and wrong one-pointedness. The vehicles
that ply on the latter way are right understanding,
right aspirations, right speech, right action, right live-
lihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right one-
pointedness. These path factors are causally related
to both mind and body, leading downwards in the
case of bad ones, and leading away from existence
(niyyana) in the case of good ones.
34.Sampayutta—Though possessing distinct character-
istics from an ultimate standpoint yet, as certain men-
tal states arise together, perish together, have one
identical object and one identical base, they are caus-

ally related to one another by way of ‘association’.
35.Vippayutta is the opposite of the foregoing. Sweet
and bitter tastes may be helpful to each other in
being dissimilar. For instance, mind that depends on
the heart-basis is causally related to it by way of dis-
sociation because both mind and heart-basis are not
mutually bound as water on a lotus leaf.
36.Atthi is the causal relation of states that exist in the
present to similar states like the causal relation of
coexistence. The visibility of objects, for instance, is
due to the presence of light.
37.Natthi—As with the disappearance of light, darkness
spreads, so with the disappearance of the predeces-
sor, the successor appears. Such is the causal relation
by way of absence. For instance, the visual conscious-
ness (dassana) is causally related to the immediately
following receiving consciousness (sampaticchana)
by way of absence.
38.Vigata and Avigata are similar to Natthi and Atthi