The Great Chronicle of The Buddhas
by Tipitakadhara Mingun Sayadaw
Tathagata Standing at the City Gate and Giving
Instructions To the Venerable Ananda
"My son Ananda, after studying this Ratana Sutta from me;
you should read it in the area bounded by
three walls of the city as a means of prevention (Paritta), then go
around the city accompanied by Licchavi Princes whom
have been instructed to carry objects offering
to the gods. "
Prevention is Conducted by the Venerable Ananda by
After studying the Ratana Sutta of the Tathagata as being in the door
Vesali gate on the day of their arrival, the Venerable Ananda
traveling in the region surrounded by three walls
city and read it in rhythm, the intonation, pronunciation,
pressure, and the fragments are precise and clear. He went about
bring Tathagata's bowl, filled with water which he splashed in
throughout the city.
Immediately after the Venerable Ananda recited the first stanza of
The sutta beginning with the words, 'Yamkinci vittam',
delicate creatures that have not been out of town, and still
dwelt among the dead or on the walls, etc.
others, in haste to go through the four gates of the city.
Because the gate is crowded with spirits
who escaped, some of them were forced to break
the city walls to get out. With the departure of
these cruel spirits, those who suffered under
influence of the spirits, back to being healthy and
all the plague disappeared. All city residents out of their homes,
and to bring them flowers and incense to salute
the Venerable Ananda.
Buddha expounded Ratana Sutta at the City Council Building
The king and the inhabitants decorate the city council building
located in the center of town with a bouquet of flowers and incense, put
ornate roof. Then they put a
throne in place appropriate to the Tathagata, then
Tathagata accompany them to the building. Tathagata sits
on the throne while the monks, the kings and the
prince, and the people sitting in their proper place.
Sakka is accompanied by the gods of the two gods of nature, namely, Natural
Tàvatimsa Catumahàràjika and also the gods Brahma and
others also came to pay homage to the Lord.
Venerable Ananda, after making a precautionary measure
by reading across the city Paritta Vesali, arrived at the building
is accompanied by a crowd of people and they all
also sit in their proper place.
In a crowd of many people, gods and Brahma, the Tathagata
preached sermon of Ratana Sutta (the same sermon
that He taught Ananda).
(Note: The Ratana Sutta text we read and learn now
It consists of three parts:
(A) The part that starts with 'Panidhànato patthàya' to
'Tam Parittam bhanàmahe' is the opening stanza
composed by the scholars of antiquity.
(B) Fifteen stanza, which begins with 'Yànidha Bhutani
samàgatàni 'to' Khinam purànam Nava natthi sambhavam '
is derived from the original Pali text in accordance with
that expounded by the Tathagata.
(C) The last three verse, Yànidha Bhutani samàgatàni 'and so on,
is spoken by Sakka at the meeting.
At the end of the Ratana Sutta sermon on the first day, the family
of Licchavi kingdom along with Vesali inhabitants free from
suffering and obtain happiness and all the distress
and disaster destroyed and peace restored. Eighty
four thousand beings achieve liberation through
penetration of the Four Noble Truths.
Then Sakka thought, "Tathagata has given happiness
and prosperity to the people by saying Vesali
the truth about the properties of the Triple Gem: I would also
speak the truth with respect to the virtues of the Three
Vesali gems for the welfare of the population. "Thus
He got up and said a three-stanza poem, 'Yànidha Bhutani
samàgatàni 'and so on, which are at the end of the Sutta
Tathagata Preached the Ratana Sutta as Long as Seven Days
After saying a three stanza poem, Sakka saluted
Tathagata by around Buddha three times and then go home
to the gods realm followed by his gods followers. Tathagata
expound this sutta again on the second day and again eighty
four thousand beings achieve Liberation
through penetration of the Four Noble Truths. Thus,
Tathagata expound this sutta for seven consecutive days,
freeing eighty-four thousand beings every day.
(Note: The number is (84 000 x 7 = 588 000) five hundred and eighty
eight thousand beings achieve liberation through
penetration of the Four Noble Truths).
Basic principles in Reading Paritta
Paritta means chanting the words of Buddha, also known as
sutta, which serves as a protector, dispel any
distress from all directions; calm and end
all hazards and eliminate them; prevent the occurrence of hazards
that will appear.
Mangala Sutta, Ratana Sutta, and others, is a sermon that
taught by the Buddha, and is strong enough to protect the
readers and listeners of the impending danger, it can also
reject and destroy the danger that is happening. These
Suttas has brought the nature of welfare and prosperity;
Therefore these suttas was given a special name, i.e. Paritta.
To be able to provide benefits, the reader should have
four skills and the listener must also have four
skills as follows:
(A) The four skills of the reader
A. The reader must have the ability to read
sentences and words in Pali by saying,
articulation and proper accent.
2. He has to understand Pali sentences that he
3. The reader must read Paritta without expecting
reward or prize.
4. Paritta should be read with a heart full of loving kindness
Paritta should be read only in this condition to be effective
avoid and dispel the danger that will happen for
the listener. If these conditions are not met by the reader, there
are not benefits to be gained from reading Paritta.
Conditions in reading and listening Paritta described
in the Digha Nikaya comments. The reader should study
and examine the words and sentences in a systematic, and
must pay attention and understand the Pali terms. Otherwise
really learn the words and the meaning of the Pali words, small
possibility to obtain the desired benefits. Only
reading by those who have studied with great
how to read this Paritta that will produce benefits
great. Paritta readings by those who expect
reward or prize will not produce any benefit.
Paritta readings by those who have a heart full of
love and compassion and with a tendency to
leads to liberation from the cycle of suffering will
(Note: Therefore, anyone who reads Paritta,
must first study the Pali language, and their commentaries
under the guidance of a good teacher, also
expected more attention to pronunciation, accent, and
fragment. Any removal of the word, or phrase from the book
Pali will cause the readings becomes useless.
Correct readings with a full understanding of the meaning
is the strength of which will bring benefits Paritta
Errors in the way of reading, errors in pronunciation,
and error to understand its true meaning, especially coupled
with the desire to obtain rewards, will reduce
Paritta strength and will not benefit
Therefore, it must be emphasized, the importance of reading
Paritta according to the conditions outlined, with a heart full of love
love and compassion and is determined to be free from samsara
and not expecting anything in return).
Failure and Success of Someone to Read Paritta
Failure of a person in reading Paritta arises because of two
cause, namely, payoga vippatti and ajjhàsaya vippatti.
(1) Payoga vippatti means the inability to speak
words and sentences appropriately and inability
in understanding its meaning, due to lack of effort in
(2) Ajjhàsaya vippatti Paritta means reading with desire
to receive compensation in the form of objects or fame.
Person's success in reading Paritta arises because
two causes, namely, payoga sampatti and ajjhàsaya sampatti.
(1) Payoga sampatti means the ability to read
Paritta due diligent effort in studying the way that
correct in saying, with a full understanding of the
(2) Ajjhàsaya sampatti means proficiency in reading Paritta
through loving kindness and compassion with a commitment to achieving
freedom and without expecting anything in return.
(Part of vipatti and sampatti was cited in Subcommentary Atanàtiya
(B) The four skills of the listener
A. The listener must free from errors of five
great violation that its consequences will soon bear fruit
(Pancànantariya kamma), namely, (a) killing the father, (b)
kill the mother, (c) kills an Arahanta, (d) injure
a Buddha, and (e) breaking up the unity of the students
2. The listener must be free from wrong views (niyata-
3. The listener must have unshakeable belief
regarding the efficacy and benefits of Paritta.
4. The listener should listen to the reading Paritta
diligent, attentive, and respectful.
These are requirements that must be possessed by the Paritta listener;
in the book Pali Milinda Panha (chapters Mendaka Panha. Pasamutti
Panha) mentioned, the first three proficiencies are as
follows, "Your Majesty, obstacles such as (a) five major violations,
(B) wrong view, and (c) uncertainty of Paritta
will not result in protection against distress. "This is a
the words spoken by Venerable Nagasena to the King
Milinda. Thus, it can be concluded that they
that is free from these three obstacles can enjoy the benefits of
Failure and Success In Listening Paritta Reading
Failure of a person in listening the Paritta reading
arise due to two causes, namely, Payoga vippatti and Ajjhàsaya
(1) Payoga vippatti means the inability to listen
Paritta reading with great respect, clasp
both hand; with attention focused on Paritta without
disturbed, which is caused by a lack of effort.
(2) Ajjhàsaya vippatti means listening to the Paritta reading
half-heartedly, without belief in the efficacy
and benefits of Paritta; listening Paritta just to
satisfy people whom invited at a ceremony
of Paritta readings.
Person's success in listening the Paritta reading
arise due to two causes, namely, payoga sampatti and ajjhàsaya
(3) Payoga sampatti means trying to listen to the Paritta
reading with clasp both hands and with
respectfully with attention focused on Paritta without
(4) Ajjhàsaya sampatti means listening to the Paritta
reading with full heart, with complete confidence
of efficacy and benefits of Paritta; listen Paritta
not just to please others, but with
heartfelt desire to do virtues.
Paritta listeners should avoid two factors of vippatti that
mentioned above and try to execute two
sampatti, so it can benefit the protection of
Just as the reader should avoid the two-factor Paritta
failure and tried to carry out two success factors,
as well as the listener has to do the same.
Paritta Who Have Special Power
(1) Ratana Sutta has strengths which include one hundred
thousand crore of the universe. This Sutta is helpful in the process
Magga-Phala Nana penetration and the attainment of Nibbana
by five hundred and eighty-eight thousand men, gods
and Brahma. Thus, poems or Paritta has
influence and immense strength.
(2) Mangala Sutta also have enormous power over
one hundred thousand crore of the universe. There are countless
humans, gods, and Brahma managed to penetrate the Magga-Phala
Nana and attain Nirvana because listening to this sutta.
(3) Metta Sutta is Sutta known for its strength.
Its influence reaches to more than one hundred thousand crore
universe. This Sutta has helped the monks who
dwell in the forest Arahatta holiness, through the
àsava extinction. Diligently carry out instructions
moral instruction contained in this sutta, one would
obtain Liberation Road. This Sutta is also a
Chanting that very powerful and influential.
(4) Khandha Sutta. A powerful other sutta,
its strength to reach up to more than one hundred thousand
crore universe. Have the power expel
distress caused by various types of toxins in
every time. This sutta contains a section describing
virtues and greatness of Buddha, Dhamma, and also Samgha
describes the result either of loving kindness (metta). A Paritta
that powerful and can produce special benefits.
(5) Dhajagga Sutta, is also a powerful sutta
that span more than one hundred thousand crore of the universe.
Contemplation of the virtues of the Buddha, Dhamma, and Samgha
is being touted in this sutta is a tool to increase
one's intellectual powers, to be able to enjoy
heavenly bliss for three thousand cycles of the world, to be
born as Sakka as much as eighty times, as
king of the world as much as a thousand times, as usual king as much as
uncountable; to be born rich and
prosperous in every birth, because the property
he has not lost, stolen or destroyed. For
one hundred thousand world cycles, he will not be reborn in states of woe
and it can not be bothered or tremble with fear. Great
power which is contained in this sutta can also help
someone to finally reach the Arahatta sanctity.
(6) Bojjhanga Sutta, also have influence and power
reaching more than one hundred thousand crore of the universe, has
dispel the power of the distress and disease. Effort
and thorough reflection on the Seven Factors of Perfect
Enlightenment set forth in this sutta can help
in attaining Nibbana in this life through
Magga and Phala Nana penetration.
(7) Atànàtiya Sutta, originally composed by the four guardian deities
Catumahàràjika Gods Realm, which was assembled
in the heavenly city named Atànàta. First they
prostrating to the Seven Buddha, praising the nature and virtues of
them. Then they compose this sutta and make
announcement, "They, like the heavenly beings
yakkha who will not obey the instructions of the Buddha,
also do not obey the rules of our discipline
set will be punished according to divine law. "The gods
guardian then see the Tathagata accompanied by many
followers and troops, they offered sutta
which they were composed to the Bhagava. Tathagata then
teaches that sutta to the monks, who then
become Paritta that powerful and capable
Some comments explaining how to read the suttas
In the case of those who are ruled by evil creatures,
such as peta, Atànàtiya Sutta not read the first time, during
seven days in a row, Metta Sutta, Dhajagga Sutta, and Ratana
Sutta should be read first. If the person is a normal
after this parittas chantings, no need to read
Only if the desired results are not achieved after reading
The first three suttas for seven consecutive days, then
Atànàtiya Sutta read. Monk who read Atànàtiya
Sutta should not eat foods made from
flour, meat, and fish; he should not dwell in the land
funeral. This is because if the monks were eating
made of flour, meat, or fish, and dwelt in the land
burial, it can be mastered by evil creatures. Place
read Paritta must be kept clean and tidiness and
Monk who will be picked up from reading Paritta
Shrine of the house, escorted by armed guards and arc
arrows, shields, swords, and spears. The monk must not be
read Paritta in open space; the gates, windows, and
doors should be locked and the monk
should sit, escorted by armed guards.
Then, with a heart full of love he has to read
Paritta per the instructions below:
What is important is that people whom affected first-
should have Sila by obey the precepts regulations
then followed by the reading Paritta. If everything is
performed but failed to drive out the evil creature, the patient
must be brought to the vihara and laid on the roof of the pagoda. Pagoda
roof must be swept clean and made offerings of light;
then read the verses of Pali verses like 'Diva Tapati
àdicco 'and so on, are typically capable of producing
excitement. Then make an announcement stating
that all the monks had gathered in that place.
Then one must go to the nearby forests and
near a tree that has special characteristics such as
size, height, etc., and then invite
god of the tree by saying, 'All the monks expect
your coming to the meetings' (invitation as such by the
monks would not be rejected).
Then the patient should be asked, 'What is your name?' (If he
mention Naradeva, for example,) he must be called by that name,
'O Naradeva, you have been given delegation of services obtained
from offering accommodation to Samgha, the delegation of services
of offering incense and flowers, from the offerings of food
to Samgha; the monks have also read the suttas
Mangala Sutta encouraging such and others, as
Dhamma gift to you. With these considerations and because
Samgha glory to the monks, we ask that you
frees this patient. '
If the venture fails to relieve the patient, this situation should
notified by the gods of good, "O gods of good,
you know that this evil creature ignores
our request that we convey with love;
we have no choice but to ask for help with
using the power of Buddha. "Having said this,
Atànàtiya Sutta must read.
How the above only applies to householders. For the monks
ruled by evil creatures, such as peta, room must be
swept clean and trimmed, then all Samgha members
should be invited to gather there. After the transfer
of merit from offering flowers, incense, etc.,
Atànàtiya Sutta should be read as described previously.
Such readings described Atànàtiya Sutta
detailed in the comments Atànàtiya Sutta. If the read out
systematic as explained in the comments, This Atànàtiya
Sutta effective and very powerful.
Similarly, other Parittas also has the power and
major influence in their own way. In short, words
of the Buddha, namely Pitaka consisting of Five Nikaya, has
great influence, his power includes up to more than one hundred thousand
crore universe. Provide welfare and prosperity
worldly and above world. Dispel any kind of distress and
pave the way towards the achievement of Nibbana through penetration
Magga-Phala Nana. The words of the Buddha, enshrined in the
Nikaya of the Pitaka is the noblest of all words
had spoken, therefore, must be believed to greatness
power, has the power and influence.
Yam Buddho bhàsate vàcam
Nibbana khemam pattiyà
sa ve vàcanamuttamà
Buddha whom reached Perfect Enlightenment with
full compassionate has explained Five Nikaya for the purpose of
in order to attain Nirvana, the end of all suffering. The words
spoken by the Buddha contained in the Nikaya Pitaka
beat all the other words, free from all defects and
bring peace and happiness. (Sagàthà vagga