Showing posts with label Dukanipata. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Dukanipata. Show all posts

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Kapi Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 250. Kapi-Jātaka

No. 250.
"A holy sage," etc.--This story was told by the Master whilst living at
Jetavana, about a hypocritical Brother.
The Brotherhood found out his hypocrisy. In the Hall of Truth they were talking
it over: "Friend, Brother So-and-so, after embracing the Buddha's religion,
which leads to salvation, still practises hypocrisy." The Master on coming in
[269] asked what they were discussing together. They told him. Said he,
"Brethren, it is not the only time this Brother has been a hypocrite; for a
hypocrite he was before, when he shammed simply for the sake of warming himself
at the fire." Then he told them an old-world tale.
Once on a time, when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the Bodhisatta was born
one of a brahmin family. When he grew up, and his own son was of an age to run
about, his wife died; he took the child on his hip, and departed into the
Himalayas, where he became an ascetic, and brought up his son to the same life,
dwelling in a hut of leaves.
It was the rainy season, and the heaven poured down its floods incessantly: a
Monkey wandered about, tormented with the cold, chattering and rattling his
teeth. The Bodhisatta fetched a great log, lit a fire, and lay down upon his
pallet. His son sat by him, and chafed his feet.
p. 188
Now the Monkey had found a dress belonging to some dead anchorite. He clad
himself in the upper and lower garment, throwing the skin over one shoulder; he
took the pole and waterpot, and in this sage's dress he came to the leaf-hut for
the fire: and there he stood, in his borrowed plumes.
The lad caught sight of him, and cried out to his father, "See, father--there is
an ascetic, trembling with cold! Call him hither; he shall warm himself." Thus
addressing his father, he uttered the first stanza:
"A holy sage stands shivering at our gate,
A sage, to peace and goodness consecrate.
O father! bid the holy man come in,
That all his cold and misery may abate."
The Bodhisatta listened to his son; he rose up, and looked; then he knew it was
a monkey, and repeated the second stanza: [270]
"No holy sage is he: it is a vile
And loathsome Monkey, greedy all to spoil
That he call touch, who dwells among the trees;
Once let him in, our home he will defile."
With these words, the Bodhisatta seized a firebrand, and scared away the monkey;
and he leaped up, and whether he liked the wood or whether he didn't, he never
returned to that place any more. The Bodhisatta cultivated the Faculties and the
Attainments, and to the young ascetic he explained the process of the mystic
trance; and he too let the Faculties and the Attainments spring up within him.
And both of them, without a break in their ecstasy, became destined to Brahma's
Thus did the Master discourse by way of shewing how this man was not then only,
but always, a hypocrite. This ended, he declared the Truths, and identified the
Birth:--at the conclusion of the Truths some reached the First Path, some the
Second, and yet some the Third:--"The hypocritical Brother was the Monkey,
Rāhula was the son, and I was the hermit myself."

Next: No. 251. Saṁkappa-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Salaka Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 249. Sālaka-Jātaka

p. 186
No. 249.
"Like my own son," etc.--This story the Master told whilst living in Jetavana,
about a distinguished Elder.
It is said that he had ordained a youth, whom he treated unkindly. The novice at
last could stand it no longer, and returned to the world. Then the Elder tried
to coax him. [267] "Look here, lad," said he, "your robe shall be your own, and
your bowl too; I have another bowl and robe which I'll give you. Join us again!"
At first he refused, but at last after much asking he did so. From the day he
joined the brotherhood the Elder maltreated him as before. Again the lad found
it too much, and left the order. As the Elder begged him again several times to
join, the lad replied, "You can neither do with me nor without me; let me
alone--I will not join!"
The Brethren got talking about this in the Hall of Truth. "Friend," said they,
"a sensitive lad that! He knew the Elder too well to join us." The Master came
in and asked what they were talking about. They told him. He rejoined, "Not only
is the lad sensitive now, Brethren, but he was just the same of old; when once
he saw the faults of that man, he would not accept him again." And he told a
story of the olden time.
Once upon a time, in the reign of Brahmadatta king of Benares, the Bodhisatta
was born into a landowner's family, and gained a living by selling corn. Another
man, a snake-charmer, had trained a monkey, made him swallow an antidote, and
making a snake play with the monkey he gained his livelihood in this way.
A merrymaking had been proclaimed; this man wished to make merry at the feast,
and he entrusted the monkey to this merchant, bidding him not neglect it. Seven
days after he cane to the merchant, and asked for his monkey. The monkey heard
his master's voice, and came out quickly from the grain shop. At once the man
beat him over the back with a piece of bamboo; then he took him off to the
woods, tied him up and fell asleep. So soon as the monkey saw that he was
asleep, he loosed his bonds, scampered off and climbed a mango tree. He ate a
mango, and dropped the stone upon the snake-charmer's head. The man awoke, and
looked up: there was the monkey. "I'll wheedle him!" he thought, "and when he
comes down from the tree, I'll catch him! "So to wheedle him, he repeated the
first verse:--
"Like my own son you shall be,
Master in our family:
[268] Come down, Nuncle 1 from the tree--
Come and hurry home with me?"
p. 187
The monkey listened, and repeated the second verse:--
"You are laughing in your sleeve!
Have you quite forgot that beating?
Here I am content to live
(So good-bye) ripe mangoes eating."
Up he arose, and was soon lost in the wood; while the snake-charmer returned to
his house in high dudgeon.
When this discourse was ended, the Master identified the Birth: "Our novice was
the Monkey. The Elder was the snake-charmer, and I myself was the

186:1 sālaka, lit. 'brother-in-law,' often used as a term of abuse.

Next: No. 250. Kapi-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Kimsukopama Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 248. Kiṁsukopama-Jātaka

No. 248.
[265] "All have seen," etc.--This story the Master told whilst staying at
Jetavana, on the Chapter about the Judas tree 1.
Four Brothers, approaching the Tathāgata, asked him to explain the means by
which ecstasy may be induced. This he explained. This done, they dispersed to
the several places where they spent their nights and days. One of them, having
learnt the Six Spheres of Touch, became a saint; another did so after learning
the Five Elements of Being, the third after learning the Four Principal
Elements, the fourth after learning the Eighteen Constituents of Being. Each of
them recounted to the Master the particular excellence which he had attained. A
thought came into the mind of one of them; and he asked the Master, "There is
only one Nirvana for all these modes of meditation; how is it that all of them
lead to sainthood?" Then the Master asked, "Is not this like the people who saw
the Judas tree?" As they requested him to tell them about it, he repeated a tale
of bygone days.
Once on a time Brahmadatta the king of Benares had four sons. One day they sent
for the charioteer, and said to him,
"We want to see a Judas tree; show us one!"
p. 185
"Very well, I will," the charioteer replied. But he did not show it to them all
together. He took the eldest at once to the forest in the chariot, and showed
him the tree at the time when the buds were just sprouting from the stem. To the
second he showed it when the leaves were green, to the third at the time of
blossoming, and to the fourth when it was bearing fruit.
After this it happened that the four brothers were sitting together, and some
one asked, "What sort of a tree is the Judas tree?" Then the first brother
"Like a burnt stump!"
And the second cried, "Like a banyan tree!"
And the third--"Like a piece of meat 1!"
And the fourth said, "Like the acacia!"
They were vexed at each other's answers, and ran to find their father. "My
lord," they asked, "what sort of a tree is the Judas tree?"
"What did you say to that?" he asked. They told him the manner of their answers.
Said the king,
"All four of you have seen the tree. Only when the charioteer showed you the
tree, you did not ask him 'What is the tree like at such a time?' [266] or 'at
such another time?' You made no distinctions, and that is the reason of your
mistake." And he repeated the first stanza
"All have seen the Judas tree--
What is your perplexity?
No one asked the charioteer
What its form the livelong year!"
The Master, having explained the matter, then addressed the Brethren: "Now as
the four brothers, because they did not make a distinction and ask, fell in
doubt about the tree, so you have fallen in doubt about the right": and in his
perfect wisdom he uttered the second verse:
"Who know the right with some deficiency
Feel doubt, like those four brothers with the tree."
When this discourse was ended, the Master identified the Birth: "At that time I
was the king of Benares."

184:1 Kiṁsuka = Butea Frondosa.
185:1 It has pink flowers.

Next: No. 249. Sālaka-Jātaka

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Padanjali Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 247. Pādañjali-Jātaka

No. 247.
"Surely this lad," etc.--This story the Master told while dwelling in Jetavana,
about the Elder Lāḷudāyi.
One day, it is said, the two chief disciples were discussing a question. The
Brethren who heard the discussion praised the Elders. Elder Lāḷudāyi, who sat
amongst the company, curled his lip with the thought--"What is their knowledge
compared with mine?" When the Brethren noticed this, they left him. The company
broke up.
The Brethren were talking about it in the Hall of Truth. "Friend, did you see
how Lāḷudāyi curled his lip in scorn of the two chief disciples?" On hearing
which the Master said, "Brethren, in olden days, as now, Lāḷudāyi had no other
answer but a curl of the lip." Then he told them an old-world tale.
[264] Once upon a time, when king Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the
Bodhisatta was his adviser in things spiritual and temporal. Now the king had a
sun, Pādañjali by name, an idle lazy loafer. By and bye the king died. His
obsequies over, the courtiers talked of consecrating his son Pādañjali to be
king. But the Bodhisatta said,
"’Tis a lazy fellow, an idle loafer,--shall we take and consecrate him king?"
The courtiers held a trial. They sat the youth down before them, and made a
wrong decision. They adjudged something to the wrong owner, and asked him,
"Young sir, do we decide rightly?"
The lad curled his lip.
"He is a wise lad, I think," thought the Bodhisatta; "he must know that we have
decided wrongly:" and he recited the first verse:--
"Surely the lad is wise beyond all men.
He curls his lip--he must see through us, then!"
p. 184
Next day, as before, they arranged a trial, but this time judged it aright.
Again they asked him what he thought of it.
Again he curled his lip. Then the Bodhisatta perceived that he was blind fool,
and repeated the second verse:--
"Not right from wrong, nor bad from good he knows:
He curls his lip--but no more sense he shows."
The courtiers became aware that the young man Pādañjali was a fool, and they
made the Bodhisatta king.
When the Master had ended this discourse, he identified the Birth: "Lāḷudāyi was
Pādañjali, and I was the wise courtier."

Next: No. 248. Kiṁsukopama-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Telovada Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 246. Telovāda-Jātaka

p. 182
No. 246.
"The wicked kills," etc.--This is a story which the Master told while staying in
his gabled chamber near Vesāli, about Sīhasenāpati.
It is said that this man, after he had fled to the Refuge, offered hospitality
and then gave food with meat in it. The naked ascetics on hearing this were
angry and displeased; they wanted to do the Buddha a mischief; "The priest
Gotama," sneered they, "with his eyes open, eats meat prepared on purpose for
The Brethren discussed this matter in their Hall of Truth: "Friend, Nāthaputta
the Ascetic 1 goes about sneering, because, he says, 'Priest Gotama eats meat
prepared on purpose for him, with his eyes open'." Hearing this, the Master
rejoined:--"This is not the first time, Brethren, that Nāthaputta has been
sneering at me for eating meat which was got ready for me on purpose; he did
just so in former times. And he told them an old-world tale.
Once on a time, when Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the Bodhisatta was born a
brahmin. When he came of age he embraced the religious life.
He came down from Himalaya to get salt and seasoning, and next day walked the
city, begging alms. A certain wealthy man designed to annoy the ascetic. So he
brought him to his dwelling, and pointed out a seat, and then served him with
fish. After the meal, the man sat on one side, and said,
"This food was prepared on purpose for you, by killing living creatures. Not
upon my head is this wrong, but upon yours!" And he repeated the first stanza:--
"The wicked kills, and cooks, and gives to eat:
He is defiled with sin that takes such meat."
[263] On hearing this, the Bodhisatta recited the second stanza:--
"The wicked may for gift slay wife or son,
Yet, if the holy eat, no sin is done 2."
p. 183
And the Bodhisatta with these words of instruction rose from his seat and
This discourse ended, the Master identified the Birth: "Nāthaputta, the Naked
Ascetic was this wealthy man, and I was the ascetic."

182:1 He is one of the six titthiyas (Heretics), and generally called Nātaputta
(which is probably the right spelling here). The 'naked ascetics' were probably
the Jains.
182:2 "..Ṭhose who take life are in fault, but not the persons who eat the
flesh; my priests have permission to eat whatever food it is customary to eat in
any place or country, so that it be done without the indulgence of the appetite,
or evil desire." Hardy, Manual, p. 327.

Next: No. 247. Pādañjali-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Mulapariyaya Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 245. Mulapariyaya Jataka

p. 180
No. 245.
"Time all consumes," etc.--This is a story told by the Master while he stayed
near Ukkaṭṭhā, in the Subhagavana Park, in connexion with the Chapter on the
Succession of Causes.
At that time, it is said, five hundred brahmins who had mastered the three
Vedas, having embraced salvation, studied the Three Piṭakas. These learnt, they
became intoxicated with pride, thinking to themselves--"The Supreme Buddha knows
just the Three Piṭakas, and we know them too. So what is the difference between
us?" They discontinued their waiting upon the Buddha, and went about with an
equal following of their own.
One day the Master, when these men were seated before him, repeated the Chapter
on the Succession of Causes, and adorned it with the Eight Stages of Knowledge.
They did not understand a word. The thought came into their mind--"Here we have
been believing that there were none so wise as we, and of this we understand
nothing. There is none so wise as the Buddhas: O the excellence of the Buddhas!"
After this they were humbled, as quiet as serpents with their fangs extracted.
When the Master had stayed as long as he wished in Ukkaṭṭhā, he departed to
Vesāli; and at Gotama's shrine he repeated the Chapter on Gotama. There was a
quaking of a thousand worlds! Hearing this, these Brothers became saints.
But however, after the Master had finished repeating the Chapter on the
Succession of Causes, during his visit to Ukkaṭṭhā [260] the Brethren discussed
the whole affair in the Hall of Truth. "How great is the power of the Buddhas,
friend! Why, these brahmin mendicants, who used to be so drunk with pride, have
been humbled by the lesson on the Succession of Causes!" The Master entered and
asked what their talk was about. They told him. He said, "Brethren, this is not
the first time that I have humbled these men, who used to carry their heads so
high with pride; I did the same before." And then he told them a tale of the
olden time.
Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta reigned in Benares, the Bodhisatta was born a
brahmin; who when he grew up, and mastered the Three Vedas, became a far-famed
teacher, and instructed five hundred pupils in sacred verses. These five
hundred, having given their best energy to their work, and perfected their
learning, said within themselves,
"We know as much as our teacher: there is no difference."
Proud and stubborn, they would not come before their teacher's face, nor do
their round of duty.
One day, they saw their master seated beneath a jujube tree; and desiring to
mock him, they tapped upon the tree with their fingers. "A worthless tree!" said
p. 181
The Bodhisatta observed that they were mocking him. "My pupils," he said, "I
will ask you a question."
They were delighted. "Speak on," said they, "we will answer."
Their teacher asked the question by repeating the first stanza:--
"Time all consumes, even time itself as well.
Who is’t consumes the all-consumer?--tell 1!"
[261] The youths listened to the problem; but not one amongst them could answer
it. Then said the Bodhisatta,
"Do not imagine that this question is in the Three Vedas. You imagine that you
know all that I know, and so you act like the jujube tree 2. You don't know that
I know a great deal which is unknown to you. Leave me now: I give you seven
days--think over this question for so long."
So they made salutation, and departed each to his own house. There for a week
they pondered, yet they could make neither head nor tail of the problem. On the
seventh day, they came to their teacher, and greeted him, sitting down.
"Well, ye of auspicious speech, have you solved the question?"
"No, we have not," said they.
Again the Bodhisatta spoke in reproof, uttering the second stanza:--
"Heads grow on necks, and hair on heads will grow:
How many heads have ears, I wish to know?"
"Fools are ye," he went on, rebuking the youths: "ye have ears with holes in
them, but not wisdom;" and he solved the problem. [262] They listened. "Ah,"
said they, "great are our Teachers!" and they craved his pardon, and quenching
their pride they waited upon the Bodhisatta.
When the Master had ended this discourse, he identified the Birth: "At that time
these Brothers were the five hundred pupils; and I myself was their teacher."

181:1 Kālaghaso, the 'consumer of time,' is he who, by destroying the thirst for
existence, so lives as not to be born again (Scholiast's explanation).
181:2 The jujube fruit is often contrasted with the cocoa nut, as being only
externally pleasing, see Hitop. i. 95.

Next: No. 246. Telovāda-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Viticcha Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 244. Vīticcha-Jātaka

No. 244.
"What he sees," etc.--This story the Master told at Jetavana, about a turntail
vagrant who wandered about the country.
It is said that this man could not find any one to argue with him in all India;
till he came to Sāvatthi, and asked whether any one could dispute with him.
Yes--ho was told--the Supreme Buddha; hearing which, he and a multitude with him
repaired to Jetavana, and put a question to the Master,
p. 179
whilst he was discoursing in the midst of the four kinds of disciples. The
Master answered his question, and then put one to him in return. This the man
failed to answer, got up, and turned tail. The crowd sitting round exclaimed,
"One word, Sir, vanquished the itinerant!" Said the Master, "Yes, Brethren, and
just as I have vanquished him now with one word, so I did before." Then he told
a story of olden days.
Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the Bodhisatta was born
a brahmin in the kingdom of Kāsi. He grew up, and mastered his passions; and
embracing the religious life, [258] he dwelt a long time in the Himalayas.
He came down from the highlands, and took up his abode near a considerable town,
in a hut of leaves built beside a bend of the river Ganges. A certain pilgrim,
who found no one that could answer him throughout all India, came to that town.
"Is there anyone," asked he, "who can argue with me?"
Yes, they said, and told him the power of the Bodhisatta. So, followed by a
great multitude, he made his way to the place where the Bodhisatta dwelt, and
after greeting him, took a seat.
"Will you drink," he asked, "of the Ganges water, infused with wild wood
The pilgrim tried to catch him in his words. "What is Ganges? Ganges may be
sand, Ganges may be water, Ganges may be the near bank, Ganges may be the far
Said the Bodhisatta to the pilgrim, "Besides the sand, the water, the hither and
the further bank, what other Ganges can you have?" The pilgrim had no answer for
this; he rose up, and went away. When he had gone the Bodhisatta spake these
verses by way of discourse to the assembled multitude:--
"What he sees, he will not have;
What he sees not he will crave.
He may go a long way yet--
What he wants he will not get.
"He contemns what he has got;
Once ’tis gained, he wants it not.
He craves everything always:
Who craves nothing earns our praise."
[259] When this discourse was ended, the Master identified the Birth: "The
vagrant is the same in both cases, and I myself was then the ascetic."

Next: No. 245. Mūla-Pariyāya-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Guttila Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 243. Guttila-Jātaka

p. 172
No. 243.
"I had a pupil once," etc.--This story the Master told in the Bamboo-grove,
about Devadatta.
On this occasion the Brethren said to Devadatta: "Friend Devadatta, the Supreme
Buddha is your teacher; of him you learnt the Three Piṭakas and how to produce
the Four kinds of Ecstasy; you really should not act the enemy to your own
teacher!" Devadatta replied: "Why, friends,--Gotama the Ascetic my teacher? Not
a bit: was it not by my own power that I learnt the Three Piṭakas, and produced
the Four Ecstasies?" He refused to acknowledge his teacher.
The Brethren fell a-talking of this in the Hall of Truth. "Friend! Devadatta
repudiates his teacher! he has become an enemy of the Supreme Buddha! and what a
miserable fate has befallen him!" In came the Master, and enquired what they
were all talking of together. They told him. "Ah, Brethren," said he, "this is
not the first time that Devadatta has repudiated his teacher, and shown himself
my enemy, and come to a miserable end. It was just the same before." And then he
told the following story.
Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhisatta was
born in a musician's family. His name was Master Guttila. When he grew up, he
mastered all the branches of music, and under the name of Guttila the Musician
he became the chief of his kind in all India. He married no wife, but maintained
his blind parents 1.
At that time certain traders of Benares made a journey to Ujjeni for trade. A
holiday was proclaimed; they all clubbed together; they procured scents and
perfumes and ointments, and all manner of foods and meats. "Pay the hire," they
cried, "and fetch a musician!"
It happened that at the time a certain Mūsila [249] was the chief musician in
Ujjeni. Him they sent for, and made him their musician. Mūsila was a player on
the lute; and he tuned his lute up to the highest key, to play upon. But they
knew the playing of Guttila the Musician, and his music seemed to them like
scratching on a mat. So not one of them showed pleasure. When Mūsila saw that
they expressed no pleasure, he said to himself--"Too sharp, I suppose," and
tuning his lute down to the middle tone, he played it so. Still they sat
indifferent. Then thought he, "I suppose they know nothing about it;" and making
as though he
p. 173
too were ignorant, he played with the strings all loose. As before, they made no
sign. Then Mūsila asked them, "Good merchants, why do you not like my playing?"
"What! are you playing?" cried they. "We imagined that you must be tuning up."
"Why, do you know any better musician," he asked, "or are you too ignorant to
like my playing?"
Said the merchants, "We have heard the music of Guttila the Musician, at
Benares; and yours sounds like women crooning to soothe their babies."
"Here, take your money back," said he, "I don't want it. Only when you go to
Benares, please take me with you."
They agreed, and took him back to Benares with them; they pointed out the
dwelling of Guttila, and departed every man to his own house.
Mūsila entered the Bodhisatta's dwelling; he saw his beautiful lute where it
stood, tied up: he took it down, and played upon it. At this the old parents,
who could not see him because they were blind, [250] cried out
"The mice are gnawing at the lute! Shoo! shoo! the rats are biting the lute to
At once Mūsila put down the lute, and greeted the old folks. "Where do you come
from?" asked they.
He replied, "I come from Ujjeni to learn at the feet of the teacher."
"Oh, all right," said they. He asked where the teacher was.
"He is out, father; but he will be back to-day," came the answer. Mūsila sat
down and waited until he came; then after some friendly words, he told his
errand. Now the Bodhisatta was skilled in divining from the lineaments of the
body. He perceived that this was not a good man; so he refused. "Go, my son,
this art is not for you." Mūsila clasped the feet of the Bodhisatta's parents,
to help his suit, and prayed them--"Make him teach me!" Again and again his
parents besought the Bodhisatta to do so; until he could not stand it any
longer, and did as he was asked. And Mūsila went along with the Bodhisatta into
the king's palace.
"Who is this, master?" asked the king, on seeing him.
"A pupil of mine, great king!" was the reply.
By and bye he got the ear of the king.
Now the Bodhisatta did not stint his knowledge, but taught his pupil everything
which he knew himself. This done, he said, "Your knowledge is now perfect."
Thought Mūsila, "I have now mastered my art. This city of Benares is the chief
city in all India. My teacher is old; here therefore must I
p. 174
stay." So he said to his teacher, "Sir, I would serve the king." "Good, my son,"
replied he, "I will tell the king of it."
He came before the king, and said, "My pupil is wishful to serve your Highness.
Fix what his fee shall be."
The king answered, "His fee shall be the half of yours." And he came and told it
to Mūsila. Mūsila said, "If I receive the same as you, I will serve; but if not,
then I will not serve him." [251]
"Why?" "Say: do I not know all that you know?" "Yes, you do." "Then why does he
offer me the half?"
The Bodhisatta informed the king what had passed. The king said,
"If he is as perfect in his art as you, he shall receive the same as you do."
This saying of the king the Bodhisatta told to his pupil. The pupil consented to
the bargain; and the king, being informed of this, replied--"Very good. What day
will you compete together?" "Be it the seventh day from this, O king."
The king sent for Mūsila. "I understand that you are ready to try issue with
your master?"
"Yes, your Majesty," was the reply.
The king would have dissuaded him. "Don't do it," said he, "there should be
never rivalry between master and pupil."
"Hold, O king!" cried he--"yes, let there be a meeting between me and my teacher
on the seventh day; we shall know which of us is master of his art."
So the king agreed; and he sent the drum beating round the city with this
notice:--"Oyez! on the seventh day Guttila the Teacher, and Mūsila the Pupil,
will meet at the door of the royal palace, to show their skill. Let the people
assemble from the city, and see their skill!"
The Bodhisatta thought within himself, "This Mūsila is young and fresh, I am old
and my strength is gone. What an old man does will not prosper. If my pupil is
beaten 1, there is no great credit in that. If he beats me, death in the woods
is better than the shame which will be my portion." So to the woods he went, but
he kept returning through fear of death and going back to the wood through fear
of shame. And in this way six days passed by. The grass died as he walked, and
his feet wore away a path.
At that time, Sakka's throne became hot. Sakka meditated, and perceived what had
happened. "Guttila the Musician is suffering much sorrow in the forest by reason
of his pupil. [252] I must help him!" So he went in haste and stood before the
Bodhisatta. "Master," said he, "why have you taken to the woods?"
"Who are you?" asked the other.
p. 175
"I am Sakka."
Then said the Bodhisatta, "I was in fear of being worsted by my pupil, O king of
the gods; and therefore did I flee to the woods." And he repeated the first
stanza 1:--
"I had a pupil once, who learnt of me
The seven-stringed lute's melodious minstrelsy;
He now would fain his teacher's skill outdo.
O Kosiya 2! do thou my helper be!"
"Fear not," said Sakka, "I am your defence and refuge: "and he repeated the
second stanza:--
"Fear not, for I will help thee at thy need;
For honour is the teacher's rightful meed.
Fear not! thy pupil shall not rival thee,
But thou shalt prove the better man indeed."
"As you play, you shall break one of the strings of your lute, and play upon
six; and the music shall be as good as before. Mūsila too shall break a string,
and he shall not be able to make music with his lute; then shall he be defeated.
And when you see that he is defeated, you shall break the second string of your
lute, and the third, even unto the seventh, and you shall go on playing with
nothing but the body; and from the ends of the broken strings the sound shall go
forth, and fill all the land of Benares for a space of twelve leagues." [253]
With these words he gave the Bodhisatta three playing-dice, and went on: "When
the sound of the lute has filled all the city, you must throw one of these dice
into the air; and three hundred nymphs shall descend and dance before you. While
they dance throw up the second, and three hundred shall dance in front of your
lute; then the third, and then three hundred more shall come down and dance
within the arena. I too will come with them; go on, and fear not!"
In the morning the Bodhisatta returned home. At the palace door a pavilion was
set up, and a throne was set apart for the king. He came down from the palace,
and took his seat upon the divan in the gay pavilion. All around him were
thousands of slaves, women beauteously apparelled, courtiers, brahmins,
citizens. All the people of the town had come together. In the courtyard they
were fixing the seats circle on circle, tier above tier. The Bodhisatta, washed
and anointed, had eaten of all manner of finest meats; and lute in hand he sat
waiting in his appointed place. Sakka was there, invisible, poised in the air,
p. 176
by a great company. However, the Bodhisatta saw him. Mūsila too was there, and
sat in his own seat. All around was a great concourse of people.
First the two played each the same piece. When they played, both the same, the
multitude was delighted, and gave abundant applause. Sakka spoke to the
Bodhisatta, from his place in the air: "Break one of the strings!" said he. Then
the Bodhisatta brake the bee-string; and the string, though broken, gave out a
sound from its broken end; it seemed like music divine. Mūsila too broke a
string; but after that no sound came out of it. His teacher broke the second,
and so on to the seventh string: he played upon the body alone, and the sound
continued, and filled the town:--the multitude in thousands waved and waved
their kerchiefs in the air, in thousands they shouted applause. [254] The
Bodhisatta threw up one of the dice into the air, and three hundred nymphs
descended and began to dance. And when he had thrown the second and third in the
same manner, there were nine hundred nymphs a-dancing as Sakka had said. Then
the king made a sign to the multitude; up rose the multitude, and cried--"You
made a great mistake in matching yourself against your teacher! You know not
your measure!' Thus they cried out against Mūsila; and with stories and staves,
and anything that came to hand, they beat and bruised him to death, and seizing
him by the feet, they cast him upon a dustheap.
The king in his delight showered gifts upon the Bodhisatta, and so did they of
the city. Sakka likewise spake pleasantly to him, and said, "Wise Sir, I will
send anon my charioteer Mātali with a car drawn by a thousand thoroughbreds; and
you shall mount upon my divine car, drawn by a thousand steeds, and travel to
heaven"; and he departed.
When Sakka was returned, and sat upon his throne, made all of a precious stone,
the daughters of the gods asked him, "Where have you been, O king?" Sakka told
them in full all that had happened, and praised the virtues and good parts of
the Bodhisatta. Then said the daughters of the gods,
"O king, we long to look upon this teacher; fetch him hither!"
Sakka summoned Mātali. "The nymphs of heaven," said he, "desire to look upon
Guttila the Musician. Go, seat him in my divine car, and bring him hither." The
charioteer went and brought the Bodhisatta. Sakka gave him a friendly greeting.
"The maidens of the gods," said he, "wish to hear your music, Master."
"We musicians, O great king," said he, "live by practice of our art. For a
recompense I will play."
"Play on, and I will recompense you."
"I care for no other recompense but this. Let these daughters of the gods tell
me what acts of virtue brought them here; then will I play." [255]
p. 177
Then said the daughters of the gods, "Gladly will we tell you after of the
virtues that we have practised; but first do you play to us, Master."
For the space of a week the Bodhisatta played to them, and his music surpassed
the music of heaven. On the seventh day he asked the daughters of the gods of
their virtuous lives, beginning from the first. One of them, in the time of the
Buddha Kassapa, had given an upper garment to a certain Brother; and having
renewed existence as an attendant of Sakka, had become chief among the daughters
of the gods, with a retinue of a thousand nymphs: of her the Bodhisatta
asked--"What did you do in a previous existence, that has brought you here?" The
manner of his question and the gift she had given have been told in the Vimāna
story: they spoke as follows:--
"O brilliant goddess, like the morning star,
Shedding thy light of beauty near and far 1,
Whence springs this beauty? whence this happiness?
Whence all the blessings that the heart can bless?
I ask thee, goddess excellent in might,
Whence comes this all-pervading wondrous light?
When thou wert mortal woman, what didst thou
To gain the glory that surrounds thee now?"
"Chief among men and chief of women she
Who gives an upper robe in charity.
She that gives pleasant things is sure to win
A home divine and fair to enter in.
Behold this habitation, how divine!
As fruit of my good deeds this home is mine
A thousand nymphs stand ready at my call;
Fair nymphs--and I the fairest of them all.
And therefore am I excellent in might;
Hence comes this all-pervading wondrous light!"
[256] Another had given flowers for worship to a Brother who craved an alms.
Another had been asked for a scented wreath of five sprays for the shrine, and
gave it. Another had given sweet fruits. Another had given fine essences.
Another had given a scented five-spray to the shrine of the Buddha Kassapa.
Another had heard the discourse of Brethren or Sisters in wayfaring, or such as
had taken up their abode in the house of some family. Another had stood in the
water, and given water to a Brother who had eaten his meal on a boat. Another
living in the world had done her duty by mother-in-law and father-in-law, never
losing her temper. Another had divided even the share that she received, and so
did eat, and was virtuous. Another, who had been a slave in some household,
without anger and without pride had given away a share of her own portion, and
had been born again as an attendant upon the king of
p. 178
the gods. So also all those who are written in the story of Guttila-vimāna,
thirty and seven daughters of the gods, were asked by the Bodhisatta what each
had done to come there, and they too told what they had done in the same way by
On hearing all this, the Bodhisatta exclaimed: "’Tis good for me, in sooth,
truly ’tis very good for me, that I came here, and heard by how very small a
merit great glory has been attained. Henceforward, when I return to the world of
men, I will give all manner of gifts, and perform good deeds." And he uttered
this aspiration
"O happy dawn! O happy must I be! 1
O happy pilgrimage, whereby I see
These daughters of the gods, divinely fair, [257]
And hear their sweet discourse! Henceforth I swear
Full of sweet peace, and generosity,
Of temperance, and truth my life shall be,
Till I come there where no more sorrows are."
Then after seven days had passed, the king of heaven laid his commands upon
Mātali the charioteer, and he seated Guttila in the chariot and sent him to
Benares. And when he came to Benares, he told the people what he had seen with
his own eyes in heaven. From that time the people resolved to do good deeds with
all their might.
When this discourse was ended, the Master identified the Birth: "In those days
Devadatta was Mūsila, Anuruddha was Sakka, Amanda was the king, and I was
Guttila the Musician."

172:1 Guttila is one of the four men who "even in their earthly bodies attained
to glory in the city of the gods." Milinda, iv. 8. 25 (trans. in S. B. E., ii.
174:1 Reading antevāsike.
175:1 These stanzas, together with those which follow on page 255, and others,
occur in the Vimāna-vatthu, no. 33 (p. 28 in the P. T. S. ed.), Guttila-vimāna.
175:2 A title of Indra; the word means an Owl (Skr. Kauçika): it is one of the
many Indian clan names that are also names of animals.
177:1 These two lines occur in the Comm. to the Dhammapada, p. 99. See also note
on the First Stanza, above.
178:1 Vimāna-vatthu p. 31.

Next: No. 244. Vīticcha-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Sunakha Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 242. Sunakha-Jātaka

No. 242.
"Foolish Dog," etc. This story the Master told whilst living in Jetavana, about
a dog that used to be fed in the resting hall by the Ambala tower.
It is said that from a puppy this dog had been kept there and fed by some
water-carriers. In course of time it grew up there to be a big dog. Once a
p. 171
villager happened to see him; and he bought him from the water-carriers for an
upper garment and a rupee; then, fastening him to a chain, led the dog away. The
dog was led away, unresisting, making no sound, and followed and followed the
new master, eating whatever was offered. "He's fond of me, no doubt," thought
the man; and let him free from the chain. No sooner did the dog find himself
free, than off he went, and never stopped until he came back to the place he
started from.
Seeing him, the Brethren guessed what had happened; and in the evening, when
they were gathered in the Hall of Truth, they began talking about it.
"Friend--here's the dog back again in our resting hall! how clever he must have
been, to get rid of his chain! No sooner free, than back he ran!" The Master,
entering, asked what they were all talking about as they sat together. They told
him. He rejoined, "Brethren, this is not the first time our dog was clever at
getting rid of his chain; he was just the same before." And he told them an
old-world tale.
Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the Bodhisatta was born
in a rich family of the kingdom of Kāsi; and when he grew up, he set up a house
of his own. There was a man in Benares who had a dog which had been fed on rice
till it grew fat. [247] And a certain villager who had come to Benares saw the
dog; and to the owner he gave a fine garment and a piece of money for the dog,
which he led off bound by a strap. Arrived at the outskirts of a forest, he
entered a hut, tied up the dog, and lay down to sleep. At that moment the
Bodhisatta entered the forest on some errand, and beheld the dog made fast by a
thong; whereat he uttered the first stanza:--
"Foolish Dog! why don't you bite
Through that strap that holds you tight?
In a trice you would be free,
Scampering off merrily!"
On hearing this stanza, the Dog uttered the second:--
"Resolute--determined, I
Wait my opportunity:
Careful watch and ward I keep
Till the people are asleep."
So spake he; and when the company were asleep, he gnawed through the strap, and
returned to his master's house in great glee.
[248] When this discourse was ended, the Master identified the Birth:--"The dogs
are the same, and I was the wise man."

Next: No. 243. Guttila-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Sabbadatha Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 241. Sabbadāṭha-Jātaka

p. 168
No. 241 1.
"Even as the Jackal," etc. This story the Master told while staying in the
Bamboo-grove, about Devadatta.
Devadatta, having won favour in the eyes of Ajātasattu, yet could not make the
repute and support which he received last any time. Ever since they saw the
miracle 2 done when Nāḷāgiri was sent against him, the reputation and receipts
of Devadatta began to fall off. [243]
So one day, the Brethren were all talking about it in the Hall of Truth:
"Friend, Devadatta managed to get reputation and support, yet could not keep it
up. This happened in olden days in just the same way." And then he told them an
old-world tale.
Once upon a time, Brahmadatta was king of Benares, and the Bodhisatta was his
chaplain; and he had mastered the three Vedas and the eighteen branches of
knowledge. He knew the spell entitled 'Of subduing the World.' (Now this spell
is one which involves religious meditation.)
One day, the Bodhisatta thought that he would recite this spell; so he sat down
in a place apart upon a flat stone, and there went through his reciting of it.
It is said that this spell could be taught to no one without use of a special
rite; for which reason he recited it in the place just described. It so happened
that a Jackal lying in a hole heard the spell at the time that he was reciting
it, and got it by heart. We are told that this jackal in a previous existence
had been some brahmin who had learnt the charm 'Of subduing the World.'
The Bodhisatta ended his recitation, and rose up, saying--"Surely I have that
spell by heart now." Then the Jackal arose out of his hole, and cried--"Ho,
brahmin! I have learnt the spell better than you know it yourself!" and off he
ran. The Bodhisatta set off in chase, and followed some way, crying--"Yon jackal
will do a great mischief--catch him, catch him!" But the jackal got clear off
into the forest.
The Jackal found a she-jackal, and gave her a little nip upon the body. "What is
it, master?" she asked. "Do you know me," he asked, "or do you not?" " 3I do not
know you." He repeated the spell, and thus had
p. 169
under his orders several hundreds of jackals, and gathered round him all the
elephants and horses, lions and tigers, swine and deer, and all other fourfooted
creatures; [244] and their king he became, under the title of Sabbadāṭha, or
Alltusk, and a she jackal he made his consort. On the back of two elephants
stood a lion, and on the lion's back sat Sabbadāṭha, the jackal king, along with
his consort the she jackal; and great honour was paid to them.
Now the Jackal was tempted by his great honour, and became puffed up with pride,
and he resolved to capture the kingdom of Benares. So with all the fourfooted
creatures in his train, he came to a place near to Benares. His host covered
twelve leagues of ground. From his position there he sent a message to the king,
"Give up your kingdom, or fight for it." The citizens of Benares, smitten with
terror, shut close their gates and stayed within.
Then the Bodhisatta drew near the king, and said to him, "Fear not, mighty king!
leave me the task of fighting with the jackal king, Sabbadāṭha. Except only me,
no one is able to fight with him at all." Thus he gave heart to the king and the
citizens. "I will ask him at once," he went on, "what he will do in order to
take the city." So he mounted the tower over one of the gates, and cried
out--"Sabbadāṭha, what will you do to get possession of this realm?"
"I will cause the lions to roar, and with the roaring I will frighten the
multitude: thus will I take it!"
"Oh, that's it," thought the Bodhisatta, and down he came from the tower. He
made proclamation by beat of drum that all the dwellers in the great city of
Benares, over all its twelve leagues, must stop up their ears with flour. The
multitude heard the command; they stopped up their own ears with flour, so that
they could not hear each other speak:--nay, they even did the same to their cats
and other animals.
Then the Bodhisatta went up a second time into the tower, and cried out
"What is it, Brahmin?" quoth he.
"How will you take this realm?" he asked.
"I will cause the lions to roar, and I will frighten the people, and destroy
them; thus will I take it!" he said.
"You will not be able to make the lions roar; these noble lions, with their
tawny paws and shaggy manes, will never do the bidding of an old jackal like
you! The jackal, stubborn with pride, [245] answered, "Not only will the other
lions obey me, but I'll even make this one, upon whose back I sit, roar alone!"
"Very well," said the Bodhisatta, "do it if you can."
So he tapped with his foot on the lion which he sat upon, to roar.
p. 170
[paragraph continues] And the lion resting his mouth upon the Elephant's temple,
roared thrice, without any manner of doubt. The elephants were terrified and
dropped the Jackal down at their feet; they trampled upon his head and crushed
it to atoms. Then and there Sabbadāṭha perished. And the elephants, hearing the
roar of the lion, were frightened to death, and wounding one another, they all
perished there. The rest of the creatures, deer and swine, down to the hares and
cats, perished then and there, all except the lions; and these ran off and took
to the woods. There was a heap of carcases covering the ground for twelve
The Bodhisatta came down from the tower, and had the gates of the city thrown
open. By beat of drum he caused proclamation to be made throughout the city:
"Let all the people take the flour from out of their ears, and they that desire
meat, meat let them take!" The people all ate what meat they could fresh, and
the rest they dried and preserved.
It was at this time, according to tradition, that people first began to dry
The Master having finished this discourse, identified the Birth by the following
verses, full of divine wisdom:
"Even as the Jackal, stiff with pride,
Craved for a mighty host on every side,
And all toothed creatures came
Flocking around, until he won great fame:
"Even so the man who is supplied
With a great host of men on every side,
As great renown has he
As had the Jackal in his sovranty."
[246] "In those days Devadatta was the Jackal, Ānanda was the king, and I was
the chaplain."

168:1 Folk-Lore Journal, iv. 60.
168:2 A great elephant was let loose for the purpose of destroying the Buddha,
but only did him reverence: Cullavagga, vii. 3. 11 (S. B. E., Vinaya Texts, iii.
247); Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, p. 320; Milinda-pañha iv. 4. 30 (trans. in S.
B. E., i. 288).
168:3 Perhaps ājānāmi "I do know you."

Next: No. 242. Sunakha-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Mahapingala Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 240. Mahāpiṅgala-Jātaka

No. 240.
"The Yellow King," etc.--This story the Master told at the Jetavana Park, about
Devadatta the heretic.
Devadatta for nine months had tried to compass the destruction of the future
Buddha, and had sunk down into the earth by the gateway of Jetavana.
p. 166
[paragraph continues] Then they that dwelt at Jetavana and in all the country
round about were delighted, saying, "Devadatta the enemy of Buddha has been
swallowed up in the earth: the adversary is slain, and the Master has become
perfectly enlightened!" [240] And hearing these words spoken many a time and
oft, the people of all the continent of India, and all the goblins, and living
creatures, and gods were delighted likewise. One day, all the brethren were
talking together in the Hall of Truth, and thus would they say: "Brother, since
Devadatta sank into the earth, what a number of people are glad, saying,
Devadatta is swallowed up by the earth!" The Teacher entered, and asked, "What
are ye all talking about here, brethren?" They told him. Then said he, "This is
not the first time, O brethren, that multitudes have rejoiced and laughed aloud
at the death of Devadatta. Long ago they rejoiced and laughed as they do now."
And he told them an old-world tale.
Once upon a time reigned at Benares a wicked and unjust king named Mahā-piṅgala,
the Great Yellow King, who did sinfully after his own will and pleasure. With
taxes and fines, and many mutilations 1 and robberies, he crushed the folk as it
were sugar-cane in a mill; be was cruel, fierce, ferocious. For other people he
had not a grain of pity; at home he was harsh and implacable towards his wives,
his sons and daughters, to his brahmin courtiers and the householders of the
country. He was like a speck of dust that falls in the eye, like gravel in the
broth, like a thorn sticking in the heel.
Now the Bodhisatta was a son of king Mahā-piṅgala. After this king had reigned
for a long time, he died. When he died all the citizens of Benares were
overjoyed and laughed a great laugh; they burnt his body with a thousand
cartloads of logs, and quenched the place of burning with thousands of jars of
water, and consecrated the Bodhisatta to be king: they caused a drum of
rejoicing to beat about the streets, for joy that they had got them a righteous
king. They raised flags and banners, and decked out the city; at every door was
set a pavilion, and scattering parched corn and flowers, they sat them down upon
the decorated platforms under fine canopies, and did eat and drink. The
Bodhisatta himself sat upon a fine divan [241] on a great raised dais, in great
magnificence, with a white parasol stretched above him. The courtiers and
householders, the citizens and the doorkeepers stood around their king.
But one doorkeeper, standing not far from the king, was sighing and sobbing.
"Good Porter," said the Bodhisatta, observing him, "all the people are making
merry for joy that my father is dead, but you stand weeping. Come, was my father
good and kind to you?" And with the question he uttered the first stanza:--
p. 167
"The Yellow King was cruel to all men;
Now he is dead, all freely breathe again.
Was he, the yellow-eyed, so very dear?
Or, Porter, why do you stand weeping here?"
The man heard, and answered: "I am not weeping for sorrow that Piṅgala is dead.
My head would be glad enough. For King Piṅgala, every time he came down from the
palace, or went up into it, would give me eight blows over the head with his
fist, like the blows of a blacksmith's hammer. So when he goes down to the other
world, he will deal eight blows on the head of Yama, the gatekeeper of hell, as
though he were striking me. Then the people there will cry--He is too cruel for
us! and will send him up again. And I fear he will come and deal fisticuffs on
my head again, and that is why I weep." To explain the matter he uttered the
second stanza:--[242]
"The Yellow King was anything but dear:
It is his coming back again I fear.
What if he beat the king of Death, and then
The king 'of Death should send him back again?"
Then said the Bodhisatta: "That king has been burnt with a thousand cartloads of
wood; the place of his burning has been soaked with water from thousands of
pitchers, and the ground has been dug up all round; beings that have gone to the
other world, except by force of fate 1, do not return to the same bodily shape
as they had before; do not be afraid!" and to comfort him, he repeated the
following stanza
"Thousands of loads of wood have burnt him quite,
Thousands of pitchers quenched what still did burn;
The earth is dug about to left and right
Fear not--the king will never more return.
After that, the porter took comfort. And the Bodhisatta ruled in righteousness;
and after giving gifts and doing other good acts, he passed away to fare
according to his deserts.
When the Master had ended this discourse, he identified the Birth:--"Devadatta
was Piṅgala; and his son was I myself."

165:1 Folk-Lore Journal, iii. 126.
166:1 -jaṁghakahāpaṇādigahanena I take to mean 'the taking away of legs, money,
etc.' Possibly jaṁghā (taking it independently) may mean something like 'boot'
or 'stocks,' but I can find no authority for this.
167:1 Reading aññatra gativasā, 'except by the power of rebirth.'

Next: No. 241. Sabbadāṭha-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Harita-Mata Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 239. Harita-Mata Jataka

No. 239.
"When I was in their cage," etc.--This story the Master told while dwelling in
the Bamboo-grove, about Ajātasattu.
Mahā-Kosala, the king of Kosala's father, when he married his daughter to king
Bimbisāra, had given her a village in Kāsi for bath-money. After Ajātasattu
murdered Bimbisāra, his father, the queen very soon died of love for him. Even
after his mother's death, Ajātasattu still enjoyed the revenues of this village.
But the king of Kosala determined that no parricide should have a village which
was his by right of inheritance, and made war upon him. Some-times the uncle got
the best of it, and sometimes the nephew. And when Ajātasattu was victor, he
raised his banner and marched through the country back to his capital in
triumph; but when he lost, all downcast he returned without letting any one
It happened on a day that the Brethren sat talking about it in the Hall of
Truth. "Friend"--so one would say--"Ajātasattu is delighted when he beats his
uncle, and when he loses he is cast down." The Master, entering the Hall, asked
what they were discussing this time; [238] and they told him. He said,
"Brethren, this is not the first time that the man has been happy when he
conquered, and miserable when he did not." And he told them an old-world tale.
p. 165
Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the Bodhisatta became a
Green Frog. At the time people set wicker cages in all pits and holes of the
rivers, to catch fish withal. In one cage were a large number of fish. And a
Water-snake, eating fish, went into the trap himself. A number of the fish
thronging together fell to biting him, until he was covered with blood. Seeing
no help for it, in fear of his life he slipped out of the mouth of the cage, and
lay down full of pain on the edge of the water. At the same moment, the Green
Frog took a leap and fell into the mouth of the trap. The Snake, not knowing to
whom he could appeal, asked the Frog that he saw there in the trap--"Friend
Frog, are you pleased with the behaviour of yonder Fish?" and he uttered the
first stanza:--
"When I was in their cage, the fish did bite
Me, though a snake. Green Frog, does that seem right?"
Then the Frog answered him, "Yes, friend Snake, it does: why not? if you eat
fish which get into your demesne, [239] the fish eat you when you get into
theirs. In his own place, and district, and feeding ground no one is weak." So
saying, he uttered the second stanza:
"Men rob as long as they can compass it;
And when they cannot--why, the biter's bit!"
The Bodhisatta having pronounced his opinion, all the fish observing the Snake's
weakness, cried, "Let us seize our foe!" and came out of the cage, and did him
to death then and there, and then departed.
When the Master had ended this discourse, he identified the Birth:--"Ajātasattu
was the Water-snake, and the Green Frog was I."

Next: No. 240. Mahāpiṅgala-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Ekapada Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 238. Ekapada-Jātaka

No. 238.
[236] "Tell me one word," etc.--This story the Master told in Jetavana, about a
certain landowner.
We are told that there was a landowner who lived at Sāvatthi. One day, his son
sitting on his hip asked him what is called the "Door 1" question. He replied,
"That question requires a Buddha; nobody else can answer it." So he took his son
to Jetavana, and saluted the Master. "Sir," said he, "as my son sat on my hip,
he asked me the question called the 'Door.' I didn't know the answer, so here I
am to ask you to give it." Said the Master, "This is not the first time, layman,
that the lad has been a seeker after the way to accomplish his ends, and asked
wise men this question; he did so before, and wise men in olden days gave him
the answer; but by reason of the dimness caused by rebirth, he has forgotten
it." And at his request the Master told a tale of the olden time.
Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhisatta came
into this world as a rich merchant's son. He grew up, and when in course of time
the father died, he took his father's place as a merchant.
p. 164
And his son, a young boy, sitting on his hip, asked him a question, "Father,"
said he, "tell me a thing in one word which embraces a wide range of meaning;"
and he repeated the first stanza:--
"Tell me one word that all things comprehends:
By what, in short, can we attain our ends?"
His father replied with the second:--
"One thing for all things precious--that is skill:
Add virtue and add patience, and you will
Do good to friends and to your foes do ill."
[237] Thus did the Bodhisatta answer his son's question. The son used the way
which his father pointed out to accomplish his purposes, and by and bye he
passed away to fare according to his deserts.
When this discourse was ended, the Master declared the Truths and identified the
Birth:--at the conclusion of the Truths father and son reached the Fruit of the
First Path:--"This man was then the son, and I was the merchant of Benares

163:1 This question referred to the means of entering on the Paths.

Next: No. 239. Harita-Māta-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Saketa Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 237. Sāketa-Jātaka

No. 237.
"Why are hearts cold," etc.--This story the Master told during a stay near
Sāketa, about a brahmin named Sāketa. Both the circumstances that suggested the
story and the story itself have already been given in the First Book 3.
p. 163
[235]...And when the Tathāgata had gone to the monastery, the Brother asked,
"How, Sir, did the love begin? "and repeated the first stanza:--
Why are hearts cold to one--O Buddha, tell!--
And love another so exceeding well?"
The Master explained the nature of love by the second stanza:
"Those love they who in other lives were dear,
As sure as grows the lotus in the mere."
After this discourse was ended, the Master identified the Birth:--"These two
people were the brahmin and his wife in the story; and I was their son."

162:3 No. 68.

Next: No. 238. Ekapada-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Baka Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 236. Baka-Jātaka

No. 236.
"See that twice-born bird," etc.--This story the Master told while staying in
Jetavana, about a hypocrite. When he was brought before the Master, the Master
said, "Brethren, he was a hypocrite of old just as he is now," and told the
following story.
p. 162
[234] Once on a time, when Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the Bodhisatta
became a Fish in a certain pond in the Himalaya region, and a great shoal went
with him. Now a Crane desired to eat the fish. So in a place near the pond he
drooped his head, and spread out his wings, and looked vacantly, vacantly at the
fish, waiting till they were off their guard 1. At the same moment the
Bodhisatta with his shoal came to that place in search of food. And the shoal of
fish on seeing the crane uttered the first stanza:--
"See that twice-born 2 bird, how white--
Like a water-lily seeming;
Wings outspread to left and right--
Oh, how pious! dreaming, dreaming!"
Then the Bodhisatta looked, and uttered the second stanza:
"What he is ye do not know,
Or you would not sing his praises.
He is our most treacherous foe;
That is why no wing he raises."
Thereupon the fish splashed in the water and drove the crane away.
When this discourse was ended, the Master identified the Birth:--"This hypocrite
was the Crane, and I was the chief of the shoal of fish."

162:1 A crane's sleep" is an Indian proverb for trickery.
162:2 dijo is used of a bird as born in the egg and from the egg. It is also
applied to Brahmins, and so conveys an additional notion of piety.

Next: No. 237. Sāketa-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Vaccha-Nakha Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 235. Vaccha-Nakha Jataka

No. 235.
"Houses in the world are sweet," etc.--This story the Master told at Jetavana,
about Roja the Mallian.
We learn that this man, who was a lay friend of Ānanda's, sent the Elder a
message that he should come to him. The Elder took leave of the Master, and
went. He served the Elder with all sorts of food, and sat down on one side,
engaging him in a pleasant conversation. Then he offered the Elder a share of
his house, tempting him by the five channels of desire. "Ānanda, Sir, I have at
home great store of live and dead stock. I will divide it and give you half; let
us live in one house together!" The Elder declared to him the suffering which is
involved in desire; then rose from his seat, and returned to the monastery.
When the Master asked whether he had seen Roja, he replied that he had. "What
did he say to you?" "Sir, Roja invited me to return to the world; then I
explained to him the suffering involved in desires and the worldly life." The
Master said, "Ānanda, this is not the first time that Roja the Mallian has
invited anchorites to return to the world; he did the same before;" and then, at
his request, he told a story of the olden time.
[232] Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the Bodhisatta was
one of a family of brahmins who lived in a certain market town. Coming to years,
he took up the religious life, and dwelt for a long time amid the Himalayas.
He went to Benares to purchase salt and seasoning, and abode in the king's
grounds; next day he entered Benares.
p. 161
Now a certain rich man of the place, pleased at his behaviour, took him home,
gave him to eat, and receiving his promise to abide with him, caused him to
dwell in the garden and attended to his wants. And they conceived a friendship
each for the other.
One day, the rich man, by reason of his love and friendship for the Bodhisatta,
thought this within himself: "The life of an ascetic is unhappy. I will persuade
my friend Vacchanakha to unfrock himself; I will part my wealth in two, and give
half to him, and we both will dwell together." So one day, when the meal was
done, he spake sweetly to his friend and said--
"Good Vacchanakha, unhappy is the hermit's life; ’tis pleasant to live in a
house. Come now, let us both together take our pleasure as we will." So saying,
he uttered the first stanza:--
"Houses in the world are sweet,
Full of food, and full of treasure;
There you have your fill of meat
Eating, drinking at your pleasure."
The Bodhisatta on hearing him, thus replied: "Good Sir, from ignorance you have
become greedy in desire, and call the householder's life good, and the life of
the ascetic bad; listen now, and I will tell you how bad is the householder's
life;" and he uttered the second stanza: [233]
"He that hath houses peace can never know,
He lies and cheats, he must deal many a blow
On others' shoulders: nought this fault can cure:
Then who into a house would willing go?"
With these words the great Buddha told the defects of a householder's life, and
went into the garden again.
When the Master had ended this discourse, he identified the Birth:--"Roja the
Mallian was the Benares merchant, and I was Vacchanakha the mendicant."

Next: No. 236. Baka-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Asitabhu Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 234. Asitābhū-Jātaka

No. 234.
"Now desire has gone," etc.--This story the Master told while staying at
Jetavana, about a young girl.
Tradition tells us that a certain man at Sāvatthi, a servant of the Master's two
chief disciples, had one beautiful and happy daughter. When she grew
p. 159
up, she married into a family as good as her own. The husband, without
consulting anybody, used to enjoy himself elsewhere at his own sweet will, She
took no notice of his disrespect; but invited' the two chief disciples, made
them presents, and listened to their preaching, until she reached the Fruit of
the First Path. After this she spent all her time in the enjoyment of the Path
and the Fruit; at last, thinking that as her husband did not want her, there was
no need for her to remain in the household, she determined to embrace the
religious life. She informed her parents of her plan, carried it out, and became
a saint.
Her story became known amongst the Brotherhood; and one day they were discussing
it in the Hall of Truth. "Friend, the daughter of such and such a family strives
to attain the highest good. Finding that her husband did not care for her, she
made rich presents to the chief disciples, listened to their preaching, and
gained the Fruit of the First Path; she took leave of her parents, became a
religious, and then a saint. So, friend, the girl sought the highest good."
While they were talking, the Master came in and asked what it was all about.
They told him. He said, "This is not the first time, Brethren, that she seeks
the highest; she did so in olden days as well." And he told an old-world tale.
Once on a time, when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the Bodhisatta was living
as an ascetic, in the Himalaya region; and he had cultivated the Faculties and
the Attainments. Then the king of Benares, observing how magnifical was the pomp
of his son Prince Brahmadatta, was filled with suspicion, and banished his son
from the realm.
[230] The youth with his wife Asitābhū made his way to Himalaya, and took up his
abode in a hut of leaves, with fish to eat, and all manner of wild fruits. He
saw a woodland sprite, and became enamoured of her. "Her will I make my wife!"
said he, and nought reeking of Asitābhū, he followed after her steps. His wife
seeing that he followed after the sprite, was wroth. "The man cares nought for
me," she thought; "what have I to do with him?" So she came to the Bodhisatta,
and did him reverence: she learnt what she must needs do to be initiated, and
gazing at the mystic object, she developed the Faculties and the Attainments,
bade the Bodhisatta farewell, and returning stood at the door of her hut of
Now Brahmadatta followed the sprite, but saw not by what way she went; and
baulked of his desire he set his face again for the hut. Asitābhū saw him
coming, and rose up in the air; and poised upon a plane in the air of the colour
of a precious stone, she said to him--"My young lord! ’tis through you that I
have attained this ecstatic bliss!" and she uttered the first stanza:--
"Now desire has gone,
Thanks to you, and found its ending:
Like a tusk, once sawn,
None can make it one by mending."
p. 160
So saying, as he looked, she rose up and departed to another place. And when she
had gone, he uttered the second stanza, lamenting:--[231]
"Greed that knows no stay,
Lust, the senses all confusing,
Steals our good away,
Even as now my wife I'm losing."
And having made his moan in this stanza, he dwelt alone in the forest, and at
his father's death he received the sovereignty.
After this discourse was ended, the Master identified the Birth:--"These two
people were then the prince and princess, and I was the hermit."

Next: No. 235. Vaccha-Nakha-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Vikannaka Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 233. Vikaṇṇaka-Jātaka

No. 233.
[227] "The barb is in your back," etc.--This story the Master told while
dwelling in Jetavana, about a backsliding brother.
He was brought into the Hall of Truth, and asked if he were really backsliding;
to which he replied yes. When asked why, he replied "Because of the quality of
desire." The Master said, "Desire is like two-barbed arrows for getting
lodgement in the heart; once there, they kill, as the barbed arrows killed the
crocodile." Then he told them an old-world tale.
Once upon a time, the Bodhisatta was king of Benares, and a good king he was.
One day he entered his park, and came to the side of a lake. And those who were
clever with dance and song began to dance and to sing. The fish and tortoises,
eager to hear the sound of song, flocked together and went along beside the
king. And the king, seeing a mass of fish as long as a palm trunk, asked his
"Now why do these fish follow me?"
Said the courtiers, "They are coming to offer their services to their lord."
The king was pleased at this saying, that they were come to serve him, and
ordered rice to be given to them regularly. At the time of feeding some of the
fish came, and some did not; and rice was wasted. They told the king of it.
"Henceforward," said the king, "at the time for
p. 158
the giving of rice let a drum be sounded; and at the sound of the drum, when the
fish flock together, give the food to them." From thenceforth the feeder caused
a drum to sound, and when they flocked together gave rice to the fish. As they
were gathered thus, eating the food, came a crocodile and ate some of the fish.
The feeder told the king. The king listened. "When the crocodile is eating the
fish," said he, "pierce him with a harpoon, and capture him." [228]
"Good," the man said. And he went aboard a boat, and so soon as the crocodile
was come to eat the fish, he pierced him with a harpoon. It went into his back.
Mad with pain, the crocodile went off with the harpoon. Perceiving that he was
wounded, the feeder spake to him by this stanza:
"The barb is in your back, go where you may.
The beat of drum, calling my fish to feed,
Brought you, pursuing, greedy, on the way
Which brought you also to your direst need."
When the crocodile got to his own place, he died.
To explain this matter, the Master having become perfectly enlightened spake the
second verse as follows:
"So, when the world tempts any man to sin
Who knows no law but his own will and wish,
He perishes amid his friends and kin,
Even as the Crocodile that ate the fish."
[229] When this discourse was ended, the Master declared the Truths and
identified the Birth:--at the conclusion of the Truths, the backsliding Brother
reached the Fruit of the First Path:--"In those days I was the king of Benares."

Next: No. 234. Asitābhū-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Vina-Thuna Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 232. Vīṇā-Thūṇa-Jātaka

p. 156
No. 232.
"Your own idea," etc.--This story the Master told while staying at Jetavana,
about a young lady.
She was the only daughter of a rich merchant of Sāvatthi. She noticed that in
her father's house a great fuss was made over a fine bull, and asked her nurse
what it meant. "Who is this, nurse, that is honoured so?" The nurse replied that
it was a right royal bull.
Another day she was looking from an upper storey down the street, when lo, she
spied a hunchback. [225] Thought she, "In the cow tribe, the leader has a hump.
I suppose it's the same with men. That must be a right, royal man, and I must go
and be his humble follower." So she sent her maid to say that the merchant's
daughter wished to join herself to him, and he was to wait for her in a certain
spot. She collected her treasures together, and disguising herself; left the
mansion and went off with the hunchback.
By and bye all this became known in the town and among the Brotherhood. In the
Hall of Truth, brothers discussed its bearings: "Friend, there is a merchant's
daughter who has eloped with a hunchback!" The Master came in, and asked what
they were all talking about together. They told him. He replied, "This is not
the first time, Brethren, that she has fallen in love with a hunchback. She did
the same before." And he told them an old-world tale.
Once on a time, while Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the Bodhisatta was born
of a rich man's family in a certain market town. When he came of age, he lived
as a householder, and was blessed with sons and daughters, and for his son's
wife he chose the daughter of a rich citizen of Benares, and fixed the day.
Now the girl saw in her home honour and reverence offered to a bull. She asked
of her nurse, "What is that?"--"A right royal bull," said she. And afterward the
girl saw a hunchback going through the street. "That must be a right royal man!"
thought she; and taking with her the best of her belongings in a bundle, she
went off with him.
The Bodhisatta also, having a mind to fetch the girl home, set out for Benares
with a great company; and he travelled by the same road.
The pair went along the road all night long. All night long the hunch-back was
overcome with thirst; and at the sunrise, he was attacked by colic, and great
pain came upon him. So he went off the road, dizzy with pain, and fell down,
like a broken lute-stick, huddled together; the girl too sat down at his feet.
The Bodhisatta observed her sitting at the hunch-back's feet, and recognised
her. Approaching, he talked with her, repeating the first stanza: [226]
"Your own idea! this foolish man can't move without a guide,
This foolish hunchback! ’tis not meet you should be by his side."
p. 157
And hearing his voice, the girl answered by the second stanza:--
"I thought the crookback king of men, and loved him for his worth,--
Who, like a lute with broken strings, lies huddled on the earth."
And when the Bodhisatta perceived that she had only followed him in disguise, he
caused her to bathe, and adorned her, and took her into his carriage and went to
his home.
When this discourse was ended, the Master identified the Birth:--"The girl is
the same in both cases; and the merchant of Benares was I myself."

Next: No. 233. Vikaṇṇaka-Jātaka

Khuddaka Nikaya - Jataka - Dukanipata - Upahana Jataka

Jataka Vol. II: Book II. Dukanipāta: No. 231. Upāhana-Jātaka

p. 154
No. 231.
"As when a pair of shoes," etc.--This story the Master told in the Bamboo Grove,
about Devadatta. The Brethren gathered together in the Hall of Truth, and began
to discuss the matter. "Friend, Devadatta having repudiated his teacher, and
become the foe and adversary of the Tathāgata, has come to utter destruction."
The Master came in, and asked what they were talking about as they sat there.
They told him. The Master said, "Brethren, this is not the first time that
Devadatta has repudiated his teacher, and become my enemy, and come to utter
destruction. The same thing happened before." Then he told them an old-world
Once on a time, while Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the Bodhisatta was born
as the son of an elephant trainer. When he grew up, he was taught all the art of
managing the elephant. And there came a young villager from Kāsi, and was taught
of him. Now when the future Buddhas teach any, they do not give a niggardly dole
of learning; but according to their own knowledge so teach they, keeping nothing
back. So this youth learnt all the branches of knowledge from the Bodhisatta,
without omission; and when he had learnt, said he to his master: [222]
"Master, I will go and serve the king."
"Good, my son," said he: and he went before the king, and told him how that a
pupil of his would serve the king. Said the king, "Good, let him serve me."
"Then do you know what fee to give?" says the Bodhisatta.
"A pupil of yours will not receive so much as you; if you receive an hundred, he
shall have fifty; if you receive two, to him shall one be given." So the
Bodhisatta went home, and told all this to his pupil.
"Master," said the youth, "all your knowledge do I know, piece for piece. If I
shall have the like payment, I will serve the king; but if not, then I will not
serve him." And this the Bodhisatta told to the king. Said the king,
"If the young man could do even as you--if he is able to show skill for skill
with you, he shall receive the like." And the Bodhisatta told this to the pupil,
and the pupil made answer, "Very good, I will." "To-morrow," said the king, "do
you make exhibition of your skill." "Good, I will; let proclamation be made by
heat of drum." And the king caused it to be proclaimed, "To-morrow the master
and the pupil will
p. 155
make show together of their skill in managing the elephant. To-morrow let all
that wish to see gather together in the courtyard of the palace, and see it."
"My pupil," thought the teacher to himself, "does not know all my resources." So
he chose an elephant, and in one night he taught him to do all things awry. He
taught him to back when bidden go forward, and to go on when told to back; to
lie down when bidden rise, and to rise when bidden lie down; to drop when told
to pick up, and to pick up when told to drop.
Next day mounting his elephant he came to the palace yard. And his pupil also
was there, mounted upon a beautiful elephant. There was a great concourse of
people. They both showed all their skill. But the Bodhisatta made his elephant
reverse orders; [223] "Go on!" said he, and it backed; "Back!" and it ran
forward; "Stand up!" and it lay down; "Lie!" and it stood up; "Pick it up!" and
the creature dropped it; "Drop it!" and he picked it up. And the crowd cried,
"Go to, you rascal! do not raise your voice against your master! You do not know
your own measure, and you think you can match yourself against him!" and they
assailed him with clods and staves, so that he gave up the ghost then and there.
And the Bodhisatta came down from his elephant, and approaching the king,
addressed him thus--
"O mighty king! for their own good men get them taught; but there was one to
whom his learning brought misery with it, like an ill-made shoe;" and he uttered
these two stanzas:--
"As when a pair of shoes which one has bought
For help and comfort cause but misery,
Chafing the feet till they grow burning hot
And making them to fester by and bye:
"Even so an underbred ignoble man,
Having learnt all that he can learn from you,
By your own teaching proves your very bane 1:
The lowbred churl is like the ill-made shoe."
[224] The king was delighted, and heaped honours upon the Bodhisatta.
When this discourse was ended, the Master identified this Birth as
follows:--"Devadatta was the pupil, and I myself was the teacher."

155:1 The schol. would take tam as for attānam, "he hurts himself," not "thee,"
but this is hardly possible. The verses do not seem to fit the story very

Next: No. 232. Vīṇā-Thūṇa-Jātaka